Laboratory Safety and Chain of Infection (P) Flashcards Preview

Immunology and Serology (Laboratory) > Laboratory Safety and Chain of Infection (P) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Laboratory Safety and Chain of Infection (P) Deck (111)
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1

What are biological hazards?

A biological substance that poses a threat to the health of humans by exposure to harmful microorganisms or infectious agents

2

What are the different sources of biological hazards in healthcare facilities?

1) Patients
2) Medical devices and equipment
3) Specimen
4) Water sources and irrigations
5) Vents and air conditioning
6) Fomites

3

What is chain of infection?

A process by which infection is spread in a community at a given period

4

What are the components that are required for continuing the chain of infection?

- Source
- Method of transmission
- Susceptible host

5

Explain the process of chain of infection

Transmission occurs when the agent leaves its reservoir or host through a portal of exit, is conveyed by some mode of transmission, and enters through an appropriate portal of entry to infect a susceptible host

6

What are the components of chain of infection?

1) Infectious agent
2) Reservoir
3) Portal of exit
4) Mode of transmission
5) Portal of entry
6) Susceptible host

7

What are infectious agents?

Potentially harmful microbes

8

What are the examples of infectious agents?

- Bacteria (pathogens)
- Viruses
- Fungi
- Protozoa

9

What is reservoir?

Habitat in which the infectious agent normally lives, grows, and multiplies

10

Is reservoir the source of infectious agent being transmitted?

It may and it may not be the source of the infectious agent that is being transmitted

11

Provide an example of reservoir

Clostridium botulinum (botulism)

12

What are the different types of reservoir?

1) Human reservoir
2) Animal reservoir
3) Environmental reservoir

13

What is human reservoir?

May or may not show the effects of illness

14

What are the different types of human reservoir?

1) Carrier
2) Asymptomatic or passive
3) Incubatory carriers
4) Convalescent carriers
5) Chronic carriers

15

What is a carrier?

A person with inapparent infection who is capable of transmitting pathogen to others

16

What are asymptomatic or passive carriers?

Also called as healthy carriers
Those who never experienced symptoms despite being infected

17

What are incubatory carriers?

Those who can transmit the agent during the incubation period before clinical illness begins

18

What are convalescent carriers?

Those who have recovered from their illness but remain capable of transmitting to others

19

What are chronic carriers?

Those who continue to harbor a pathogen such as Hepatitis B virus or Salmonella Typhi for months or even years after their initial infection

20

Is animal to animal transmission of diseases possible?

Yes

21

In the case of animal reservoirs, human serves as what?

Incidental hosts / accidental hosts

22

What is zoonosis?

An infectious disease that is transmissible under natural conditions from vertebrate animals to humans

23

What are the examples of zoonotic diseases?

1) Brucellosis
2) Anthrax
3) Plague
4) Trichinellosis / trichinosis
5) Tularemia
6) Rabies

24

Who or what are the reservoir of brucellosis?

Cows and pigs

25

Who or what are the reservoir of anthrax?

Sheep

26

Who or what are the reservoir of plague?

Rodents

27

Who or what are the reservoir of trichinellosis or trichinosis?

Swine

28

Who or what are the reservoir of tularemia?

Rabbits

29

Who or what are the reservoir of rabies?

Bats, racoons, dogs, and other mammals

30

What are the examples of environmental reservoirs?

1) Plants
2) Soil
3) Water