The Immune Responses (M) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Immune Responses (M) Deck (188)
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1

What is adaptive system and what is its purpose?

It is developed in a host primarily to protect the host from harmful effects of pathogens and other foreign substances

2

What are the 2 types of adaptive response?

1) Antibody-mediated (humoral)
2) Cell-mediated (cellular)

3

What is humoral adaptive response (actions brought by this response are to what)?

It acts mainly against extracellular pathogens, or those pathogen that infects outside a host cell

4

What is cellular adaptive response (action of this response is to what)?

It acts against intracellular pathogens, or those pathogens that infect host cells

5

What are the 2 important components in humoral immunity?

1) Antibodies
2) Complement
*hence, humoral immunity is based on the action of these components

6

What type of bacteria does humoral immunity react to?

1) Extracellular bacteria
2) Bacteria whose virulence is due to polysaccharide capsules

7

What are the examples of extracellular bacteria (being acted upon by humoral immunity)?

1) Corynebacterium diphtheriae
2) Clostridium tetani

8

What are the examples of bacteria having polysaccharide capsules (being acted upon by humoral immunity)?

1) Haemophilus influenzae
2) Neisseria meningitidis
3) Streptococcus pneumoniae

9

Does humoral immunity also acts to viruses?

Yes

10

Humoral immunity acts to viruses that have the capability to infect what organs / parts of the human body?

Viruses that can infect through:
1) Respiratory tract
2) Intestinal tract

11

Humoral immunity also participates in the pathogenesis of what?

Hypersensitivity reactions and certain autoimmune diseases

12

What is the main feature of humoral immune responses?

Antibody production

13

What are the different phases in the process of production of Abs?

1) Lag phase
2) Log phase
3) Plateau
4) Decline phase

14

What is lag phase (and its characteristics)?

1) It is the immediate phase following exposure to Ag
2) During this phase, no Abs are detected in the circulation

15

What is log phase (and its characteristics)?

1) It is the phase next to lag phase
2) It is characterized by a steady rise in Ab titers in the circulation

16

What is plateau (and its characteristics)?

It is a phase of equilibrium bet Ab synthesis and catabolism

17

What is decline phase (and its characteristics)?

It is characterized by an increase in the catabolism of Abs compared to the production of Abs, leading to a fall in Ab titer in the circulation

18

What are the 2 types of humoral response?

1) Primary response
2) Secondary response

19

What are the characteristics of primary response (humoral response)?

1) Ab is detectable after a longer lag period than the secondary response
2) Lag period is typically 7 - 10 days or longer depending on the nature of Ag, the dose of Ag, and the route of administration (oral or parenteral)
3) Slow, sluggish, and short-lived Abs
4) Low Ab titer
5) IgM is the 1st Ab to be formed, followed by IgG, IgA, or both
6) IgM lvls tend to decline sooner as compared to IgG lvls

20

Do primary response (in humoral response) have a longer or shorter lag period?

Longer

21

If primary response (in humoral response) has a longer lag period (than secondary response of humoral immunity), how long is the lag period? And if primary response (in humoral response) has a shorter lag period (than secondary response of humoral immunity), how short is the lag period?

The lag period of primary response (of humoral immunity) is longer compared to the lag period of secondary response (of humoral immunity), the lag period is typically 7 - 10 days or longer

22

What is the basis of duration (for Ags) of lag phase (in primary response of humoral response)?

Depending on the:
1) Nature of Ag
2) The dose of Ag
3) The route of administration

23

What are the different methods of route of administration of Ag (where the period of lag phase is dependent on; primary response of humoral immunity)?

1) Oral
2) Parenteral

24

What Ig is 1st to be formed in the lag phase of primary response (in humoral immunity)?

IgM

25

What is the order of production of Igs that are formed in the lag phase of primary response (in humoral immunity)?

1) IgM
2) IgG
3) IgA
2.1 / 3.1) Both IgG and IgA

26

W/c Ig tends to decline sooner in the lag phase of primary response (in humoral immunity)?

IgM lvls tend to decline sooner as compared to IgG lvls

27

What are the characteristics of secondary response (of humoral immunity)?

1) Rapid Ab response due to 2nd encounter w/ the same Ag, or a closely related "cross-reacting" Ag
2) Lag period is typically very short (3 - 5 days)
3) Prompt, powerful, and prolonged response
4) Higher lvl of Abs for longer period
5) Predominantly IgG
6) These changes in secondary response are attributed to the persistence of Ag-specific "memory cells" following the 1st contact w/ the Ag
7) These memory cells proliferate in large #s to produce large clones of specific B cells and plasma cells that mediate the secondary response

28

Why does rapid Ab response occur in the secondary response (of humoral immunity)?

Due to the 2nd encounter w/ the same Ag, or a closely related "cross-reacting" Ag

29

Is the lag period in secondary response (of humoral immunity) short or long?

Short, typically very short

30

If secondary response (in humoral response) has a longer lag period (than primary response of humoral immunity), how long is the lag period? Or if secondary response (in humoral response) has a shorter lag period (than primary response of humoral immunity), how short is the lag period?

The lag period of secondary response (of humoral immunity) is shorter (or very short) compared to the lag period of primary response (of humoral immunity), the lag period is typically very short having 3 - 5 days