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Flashcards in Labs Deck (69)
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1

Normal sodium range

135-145 mEq/L

2

normal K+ range

3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L

3

normal Chloride range

98-107 mEq/L

4

normal Bicarbonate range (Venous)

22-29 mEq/L

5

3 roles of serum sodium

maintains osmotic pressure, maintains acid-base balance, and assists in the transmission of nerve impulses. (it is a major extracellular cation)

6

3 roles of serum potassium in the body

(a major intracellular cation) that regulates cellular water balance, electrical conduction in muscle cells, and acid-base balance.

7

4 things that potassium levels tell us

We can use K+ levels to evaluate cardiac function, renal function, GI function, and the need for IV replacement therapy

8

Define aPTT

Activated partial thromboplastin time: evaluates how well the coag. sequence (intrinsic clotting system) is functioning by measuring the amount of time (in seconds) for recalcified citrated plasma to clot after partial thromboplastin is added to it.

9

What is aPTT used for?

To screen for coagulation disorders: detects deficiencies and inhibitors of all factors , except factors VII and XIII. It also evaluates the effectiveness of Heparin therapy.

10

Define INR

International Normalized Ratio is a test frequently used to assess the effectiveness of oral anticoagulants. It is calculated in the lab using PT values.

11

What is the normal range for aPTT? For someone receiving Heparin?

20-36 seconds (depending on the type of activator used). When receiving Heparin the aPTT should be 1.5-2 (kaplan, other source says 1.5-2.5) times the norm. *initiate bleeding precautions if >90seconds

12

At what degree of aPTT should we initiate bleeding precautions?

>90seconds

13

What is prothrombin?

A vitamin K dependent glyco-protien produced by the liver that is necessary for fibrin clot formation.

14

What is the normal range for PT?

Each institution establishes their own normal range. Typically for adult males: 9.6-11.8, and adult females: 9.5-11.3. within 2 seconds of the control is considered normal. NCLEX-RN says: 11-12.5, on warfarin 1.5-2x greater.

15

What is DIC?

disseminated intravascular coagulation

16

What is the normal range for an INR?

2-3 for standard warfarin therapy; 3-4.5 for high dose warfarin therapy.If PT exceeds 30 seconds, initiate bleeding precautions.

17

What is the normal range for platelets ?

150,000-400,000 cells/mm3

18

What is the normal level of HDL?

>60mg/dL

19

What is the normal level of LDL?

20

What are normal total cholesterol levels?

21

What is the normal range for triglycerides?

30-150 mg/dL

22

Normal range of Neutrophils?

55-70%

23

Normal range of Lymphocytes?

20-40%

24

Normal range of Monocytes?

2-8%

25

Normal range of Eosinophils

1-4%

26

Normal range of Basophils?

0.5-1%

27

What type of infection does elevated lymphocytes indicate?

Viral Infection

28

Normal range of phosphate?

3-4.5

29

Normal range of HCO3

22-28

30

Normal range of total serum calcium

9-10.5 (levels of free calcium are lower)