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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (127)
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What lab is required to monitor Heparin levels?

Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT). The goal of PTT is 1.5-2.5 times the control.


What is the use and mechanism of action of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors?

are oral anti-diabetic drugs used for diabetes mellitus type 2 that work by preventing the digestion of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are normally converted into simple sugars, which can be absorbed through the intestine. The medication is only effective if taken with the meal. Ex: Miglitol, Acarbose.


What type of insulin is Humalog (Lispro)? What is its onset, peak, and duration?

In same category is Novolog and Apidra.

Rapid acting. Onset: 15 min. Peak: 0.5-2.5 hours. Duration: 2-5 hours.


What is Levothyroxine used for? When should it be taken? Why?

It is a thyroid replacement (synthetic hormone). It must be taken every morning before breakfast to optimize absorption. Use of antacids is contraindicated.


What is the use of Odansetron and what are the common side effects?

Nausea. SE: H/A, dizziness, diarrhea, constipation and fever.


How long does it take for Metformin related GI issues to resolve?

Gi issues usually resolve within 2 weeks of starting this med.


What is the use and mechanism of action of Metformin?

Metformin is a biguanide that decreases glucose production in the liver and reduces glucose absorption in the GI tract. It also improves insulin sensitivity.


What is a rare, but serious side effect of Metronidazole? What are some common ones?

Rare/serious: seizures. Common: GI, dizziness, h/a, dry mouth, candidas, and metallic taste


What type of infections is Metronidazole used to treat?

fungal and bacterial


What is Propylthiouracil used for? What are serious side effects?

Treatment of Grave's disease: reduction of thyroid hormone. Serious SE: agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia.


What are the dietary restrictions associated with taking Propylthiouracil?

Propylthiouracil blocks the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine is utilized in the synthesis of thyroid hormone and will interfere in the action , therefore should be reduced or eliminated.


What is urticaria?



What are the symptoms associated with an adverse reaction to penicillin?

Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction: urticaria - hives, n/v, pruritis (itching), tachycardia, dyspnea, and diaphoresis.


What are the drugs used to treat C.diff?

C.diff may be a secondary/opportunistic infection resulting from long term use of antibiotics. Tx: I.V. Flagyl, oral vancomycin, or fidaxomicin (Dificid).


What is allopurinol used for? What are nursing considerations associated?

Long term gout treatment. NC: Decrease urates by avoiding use of alcohol, increase fluid intake to 3L/day, consuming a diet low in sodium, calcium and oxilate-rich foods. take drug 30 min after meals


What change in vital signs can we expect to see after giving a dose of nitroglycerine?

Nitro. is a vasodilator, which decreases blood pressure. this cause a decrease in preload leading to a decrease in cardiac output. this causes a reflex response by the sympathetic nervous system to increase the heart rate to maintain cardiac output.


What are the s/s of Digoxin toxicity?

Cardiac arrhythmias, n/v, diarrhea, visual disturbance, h/a, lethargy, irritability and abdominal cramps.

Calcium overload and an imbalance of K+ concentration induce arrhythmias and atrial systolic tachycardia with atrioventricular blockade. Low levels of potassium in the body increase the risk of digitalis toxicity.


What is the mechanism of action of Digoxin

Digoxin increases the force of contraction of the muscle of the heart by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme (ATPase) that controls movement of calcium, sodium, and potassium into heart muscle. Calcium controls the force of contraction.


What is the therapeutic range of Digoxin?

The therapeutic effect of digoxin in doses between 1 and 2ng/ml involves the alpha 2 isoform of Naþ/Kþ-ATPase. Toxic effects occur at doses of digoxin exceeding 3ng/ml.


What is the classification and mechanism of action of Phenylphrine?

Phenylphrine is an alpha agonist. Stimulation of alpha receptors causes vasoconstriction. It is used to treat shock/low BP


What is one important nursing consideration for Phenylphrine?

This drug can become unstable if it is exposed to light. It should always be covered with an opaque cover.


What class of antibiotics have a black box warning for "increased risk of tendon rupture"?

fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin. patients should be instructed to avoid high impact activities while on this medication, and to rest if they experience pain or edema around their tendons.


What are the common side effects of Statins?

Myalgia, h/a, fatigue, flu-like symptoms, constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, edema, insomnia, eczema. Rare: increased liver enzymes.


What is the mechanism of action of Statins (HMG CoA Reductase)?

Statins act by competitively inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, the first and key rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Statins mimic the natural substrate molecule, HMG-CoA, and compete for binding to the HMGCR enzyme. This competition slows the rate of mevalonate production, the next molecule in the serial steps to produce cholesterol.


What are the onset, peak and duration of Morphine PO?

Onset 15-60 min, peak 30-60 min, duration 3-7 hours.


What is the purpose of giving a Kayexalate enema? How long does it need to be retained?

A Kayexalate enema is given to people who have elevated potassium levels. It exchanges the excess potassium from the bowel and replaces it with sodium. The enema must be retained for 30 min. Diarrhea will follow, which increases potassium loss.


What is the class and mechanism of action of cholestyramine?

Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrate used to treat hyperlipidemia. This type of drug lowers the level of triglycerides and cholesterol by increasing bile acid excretion and decreasing lipid absorption.


What is the class and mechanism of action of Ropinirole?

Ropinirole is a dopaminergic used to treat parkinson's disease. It acts by stimulating dopamine receptors in the brain. Because it increases dopamine in the brain, an action opposite of antipsychotics, the side effects include psychosis, somnolence and hallucinations.


What is the most common side effect of magnesium hydroxide (antacids)?

Magnesium hydroxide commonly causes diarrhea. Constipation can occur from other types of antacids - i.e. aluminum hydroxide.


Under what circumstances would you administer charcoal to intervene in a drug overdose?

If the drug was taken PO and is still in the stomach.