LABS AND STUFF Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal > LABS AND STUFF > Flashcards

Flashcards in LABS AND STUFF Deck (36):
1

Ipsilateral

Same side of body

2

Contralateral

Opposing side of body

3

Opposition

Bringing thumb pad across finger pads

4

Reposition

returning thumb in opposition to anatomical position

5

Dermatome

Area of SKIN mainly supplied by cutaneous branches of a single nerve

6

What are the different spinal NERVES and how many are there?

Cervical (8)
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacral (5)
Coccyx (1)

7

How many spinal VERTEBRAE are there of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions

Cervical (7)
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)

8

Myotome

Group of muscles supplied by a single nerve. THe muscle and its neve = myotome. Eg) L4, L5, S1

9

Myotomes of Knee Flexion?

L5 and S1

10

Myotomes of Ankle dorsifelxion

L4 and L5

11

Myotomes of inversion of the ankle

L4

12

Myotomes of eversion of the ankle

L5 and S1

13

Why does deep fascia need to be unyielding and unflexible

to allow for the venous 'pump system', which works in par with valves in the veins. As the muscles contract and relax, the compress and decompress the veins of the body, pushing blood from the appendicular skeleton back to the axillary (heart). This is extremely important for distal limbs

14

Pros of the unyielding deep fascia with its compartments.

It contains infection or tumors

15

Cons of the unyielding deep fascia with its compartments.

Pressure (due to leakage or inflammation) can build up extremely quickly, leading to compartment syndrome. This can lead to ischemia.

16

What are the two subgroups of the skeleton

Axial and appendicular

17

Four parts of the upper limb

Pectoral girdle (scapula and clavicle)
Arm/Brachium (humerus)
Forearm/Antibrachium (radius and ulnar)
Hand/ manus (carpals, metacarpals, phalanges)

18

Four parts of the lower limb

Pelvic Girdle (ilium, ischium, pubis)
Thigh (femur and patella)
Leg (tibia and fibula)
Foot (calcaneous, talus, navicular, cuneiforms, cuboid, metatarsals, phalanges)

19

What is gait?

Alterations between loss and recovery of balance

20

Phases of the gait cycle

Stance- chosen foot is in contact with the ground (heel strike, foot progression and toe off)
Swing- when that same foot is in the air

21

What are the two usual causes of an altered gait?

Neurological or musculoskeletal reasons.

22

Antalgic Gait

shortened stance phase on the affected side, usually due to pain (as the patient doesn't want to put weight/pressure on the sore side).

23

Cerebellar Ataxia

A neurological condition. wide stance and slow pace due to loss of balance and coordination

24

High steppage Gait

Due to weakness in dorsiflexion, so you have to lift leg higher to compensate for this. High steppage and no heel strike Could be a muscular problem (of ant leg compartment) a neurological or a periphery nerve (eg) Deep peroneal nerve) issue

25

What are the four main tissue types?

Epithelium
Nerve
Muscle
Connective Tissue

26

What is a distinguishing feature of CT

That it's properties are dependent on the EXTRACELLULAR materials (unlike Nerve, muscle and epithelium which are dependent of the cytoplasm or cell-membrane)

27

Location of CT

Reflects mesenchymal origin. In inside of body.

28

How are CT's classified

via the amounts, types and arrangements of the extracellular materials, which determine the mechanical properties.

29

What is the clinical significance of CT

Many chronic diseases, such as arthritis or osteoporosis, are of CTs. This is due to changes on the amounts of extracellular materials.

30

What is the difference between Proteoglycans and Glycoproteins

the protein:glycan ratio
PGs = subtype of glycoproteins, have more glycan, are within the extracellular matrix
Glycoproteins = have more protein

31

What is the basic structure of a PG

A protein core (single chain of aa) with GAG chains attached. HA is the exception as it doesn't have a protein core.

32

What makes up a GAG

Straight chain Polysaccharide made of repeating disaccharide units.
All have negative charges which help resist compression

33

Common GAGs are

Hyaluronan, chondroitin sulphate

34

How are CTs responsive to the mechanical environment

They will remodel if the Mechanical environment changes. This means CT classification is not discrete, and there are many ranges of intermediate forms eg) fibrocartilage

35

A high Collagen and low PG means

Resistance to tensional forces eg) tendon

36

A high collagen and PG mean

Resistance to compressional forces eg) cartilage