Flashcards in LABS AND STUFF Deck (36):
Same side of body
Opposing side of body
Bringing thumb pad across finger pads
returning thumb in opposition to anatomical position
Area of SKIN mainly supplied by cutaneous branches of a single nerve
What are the different spinal NERVES and how many are there?
How many spinal VERTEBRAE are there of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions
Group of muscles supplied by a single nerve. THe muscle and its neve = myotome. Eg) L4, L5, S1
Myotomes of Knee Flexion?
L5 and S1
Myotomes of Ankle dorsifelxion
L4 and L5
Myotomes of inversion of the ankle
Myotomes of eversion of the ankle
L5 and S1
Why does deep fascia need to be unyielding and unflexible
to allow for the venous 'pump system', which works in par with valves in the veins. As the muscles contract and relax, the compress and decompress the veins of the body, pushing blood from the appendicular skeleton back to the axillary (heart). This is extremely important for distal limbs
Pros of the unyielding deep fascia with its compartments.
It contains infection or tumors
Cons of the unyielding deep fascia with its compartments.
Pressure (due to leakage or inflammation) can build up extremely quickly, leading to compartment syndrome. This can lead to ischemia.
What are the two subgroups of the skeleton
Axial and appendicular
Four parts of the upper limb
Pectoral girdle (scapula and clavicle)
Forearm/Antibrachium (radius and ulnar)
Hand/ manus (carpals, metacarpals, phalanges)
Four parts of the lower limb
Pelvic Girdle (ilium, ischium, pubis)
Thigh (femur and patella)
Leg (tibia and fibula)
Foot (calcaneous, talus, navicular, cuneiforms, cuboid, metatarsals, phalanges)
What is gait?
Alterations between loss and recovery of balance
Phases of the gait cycle
Stance- chosen foot is in contact with the ground (heel strike, foot progression and toe off)
Swing- when that same foot is in the air
What are the two usual causes of an altered gait?
Neurological or musculoskeletal reasons.
shortened stance phase on the affected side, usually due to pain (as the patient doesn't want to put weight/pressure on the sore side).
A neurological condition. wide stance and slow pace due to loss of balance and coordination
High steppage Gait
Due to weakness in dorsiflexion, so you have to lift leg higher to compensate for this. High steppage and no heel strike Could be a muscular problem (of ant leg compartment) a neurological or a periphery nerve (eg) Deep peroneal nerve) issue
What are the four main tissue types?
What is a distinguishing feature of CT
That it's properties are dependent on the EXTRACELLULAR materials (unlike Nerve, muscle and epithelium which are dependent of the cytoplasm or cell-membrane)
Location of CT
Reflects mesenchymal origin. In inside of body.
How are CT's classified
via the amounts, types and arrangements of the extracellular materials, which determine the mechanical properties.
What is the clinical significance of CT
Many chronic diseases, such as arthritis or osteoporosis, are of CTs. This is due to changes on the amounts of extracellular materials.
What is the difference between Proteoglycans and Glycoproteins
the protein:glycan ratio
PGs = subtype of glycoproteins, have more glycan, are within the extracellular matrix
Glycoproteins = have more protein
What is the basic structure of a PG
A protein core (single chain of aa) with GAG chains attached. HA is the exception as it doesn't have a protein core.
What makes up a GAG
Straight chain Polysaccharide made of repeating disaccharide units.
All have negative charges which help resist compression
Common GAGs are
Hyaluronan, chondroitin sulphate
How are CTs responsive to the mechanical environment
They will remodel if the Mechanical environment changes. This means CT classification is not discrete, and there are many ranges of intermediate forms eg) fibrocartilage
A high Collagen and low PG means
Resistance to tensional forces eg) tendon