Languages and Enviroment Flashcards Preview

Higher Computing Science > Languages and Enviroment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Languages and Enviroment Deck (20):

What is machine code?

- A language that all processors understand.
- Binary.


What is hexadecimal code?

The lowest form of programming language used by programmers.


What is assembly code?

- Created by the developers of processors.
- Architecture dependent, not portable
- Often used when high performance is crucial


Why are low level languages used?

- Optimisation of code
- Where no translate software exists
- Greater control of hardware features


What are some high level language characteristics?

- Require translation
- Portable
- Easier to read, write and maintain as commands are similar to English
- Allow access to module libraries
- Use data types and data structures, selection statements and repetition/ iteration constructs.
- Use logic operators and functions that are built into the language
- Held in RAM when a program is executed


What is procedural language?

- Designed to allow programs to create code that will be processed logically and in a structured order
- Code is contained within procedures
- Procedures will be created to allow a series of steps to be followed
- Data can be passed from procedure to procedure using parameters


What is declarative language?

- Often used but intelligent systems
- Programmers will create a knowledge base
- A knowledge base contains a series of related facts and rules
- Achieve their effect by the evaluation of expressions
- Allow for the use of self modifying code
- Use capital letters as a variable to find an unknown


What are rules?

- Conditional facts
- Contain goals and sub-goals e.g


What is twos compliment?

A process where you convert all the 0s to 1s and all the 1s to 0s, then you add 1.


Describe floating point representation.

• If bytes for mantissa go up:
- the precision goes up
- but the range goes down

• If bytes for mantissa go down:
- the precision goes down
- but range goes up


What is ascii?

- Used 7 bit represent the characters found on keyboards.
- Represents: - 128 characters
- 33 non printing
- 95 printable


What is Unicode?

- 16 bits
- supports 65536 characters
- the first 256 characters in Unicode are used to represent those of ex-ascii


What is sample rate?

Dictates how many samples are taken per second and is measured in KHz


What is sample size?

Dictates how many bits are used to store each sample, much like the concept of bit depth in relation to a bit mapped graphic


What is frame rate?

The term used to describe the number of frames that are captured per second when recording a video.


What is resolution?

The term used to state the total number of pixels in an image.


What does but depth dictate?

The total number of available colours.


How do you calculate file size for a video?

File size = frame rate x bit depth x time(s) x resolution


How do you calculate the file size of an audio?

File size = sample size x sample rate x time x channels


How many channels are in mono and stereo?

Mono - 1
Stereo - 2