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Flashcards in Last minute Deck (43):
1

What is the intracellular concentration of Chloride?

100mM

2

What number should be used in Goldmann equation?

61

3

What does a non-competitive antagonist do?

Reduce the slope and max response of an agonist

4

How can you find total number of antagonist binding sites in a preperation?

Scatchard plot

5

What does equal potency give?

Same response

6

Where is hepatic cytochrome p450 found?

In the ER

7

What is the systolic pressure in the arteriole?

20mmHg

8

What is the normal H+ conc in body fluids?

4x10-8 moles per litre

9

What are the n, u, m?

n=10-9, u=10-6, m=10-3

10

What is type II typically associated with?

Truncation in CACNA1A

11

What is Poisselles law for flow?

Flow- proportional to change in pressure and 4th power of radius, inversely proportional to the viscosity and length

12

What is Poisselles law for Resistance?

resistance- proportional to viscosity and length, inversely proportional to 4th power of radius

13

What does MLCK do?

Phosphorylate the serine residue 19- allow myosin cross bridges to bind to actin

14

What does MLCP do?

Dephosphorylation of myosin light chain

15

What can 3rd degree heart block do to blood pressure?

Can lower it

16

What are long and short QT to do with?

Ventricular action potential

17

Give examples of COXIBs?

Selective for cox2- Vioxx, dicholenic - musculoskeletal pain

18

What is omalizumab?

Humanised antibody and soluble receptors to IgE- to treat asthma

19

What is treatment for Long QT syndrome?

B blockers- e.g. atenolol

20

What is the treatment for short QT syndrome?

Quinidines, implant defibrillation

21

What is atrial fibrillation treatment?

Flecanide, B blockers, amodarone, Dronadorone

22

What are the treatments for epilepsy?

Benzos, barbiturates, uptake inhibitors of GABA, metabolic inhibitors of GABA, Calcium channel blocker, Sodium channel blocker

23

What is treatment for Myotonia congenital?

Sodium channel blocker -Maxiltene

24

What does KO human and mice AQP1 show?

Problems with urine concentration but largely healthy as not contributing full amount

25

What does KO of A1/A3 show in mice with and without water?

with- half the osmolality, without- quarter the osmolality

26

How are the alpha subunits of GABA that are sensitive to Benzos known?

Through animal models- replace a2 gene with mutated/ KO, gives no anxiolytic effects of diazapam

27

What are problems with vigabatrin?

Depression

28

what are problems with valproate?

High protein binding, rarely hepatic, teratogenic, nausea, hair loss, weight gain

29

What are the problems with Phenytoin?

Complex pharmacokinetics, vertigo, ataxia, headaches, rashes

30

What are the problems with Carbamazepine?

Microsomal enzyme induction

31

What are problems with Lamotigine?

Nausea, dizziness, ataxia, rashes

32

What Calcium channels are targeted in epilepsy?

T type in Raphe nuclei - for absence siezures

33

What is the structure of CACNA1A?

24 trans domains, 4 voltage sensory, 4 pore, P/Q type calcium channel

34

What is an experiment with CACNA1A?

barium current- shows reduce current with mutant and voltage dependance change- higher voltage needed to open

35

What are the risks of opioids?

Sedation, depression of respiration, inhibition of GI tract, addiction with continuous use

36

What is an example of an anticholinergic used to treat asthma?

Tiotropium bromide

37

What is the evidence that Myasthenia Graves is cause by antibodies?

87% patients show positive for antibodies, injection of ABs into mice- show fewer ABs then normal and size is smaller

38

Name a acetylcholinesterase?

Pyridostigme

39

Name a corticosteroid?

Prednisolone

40

What study was done with malignant hypothermia?

Rabbit 614 mutation with caffeine and halothane

41

What in vitro screening assay undergo in lead optimisation?

Mutagenicity, clastogenicity, specific cardiac arrhythmia biomarker

42

What other methods other than assays are used in lead optimisation?

Overexpresed KO, Exploratory studies

43

What are different immunotherapies to treat cancer?

Checkpoint inhibitors- T cells attack tutors, CART Cell therapy- engineer own cells to fight cancer
Cancer vaccines- protect against damage or abnormal cells