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Flashcards in Last misc. chunk Deck (29):
1

Antihistamines to reduce gastric acid

Cimetidine, famotidin, ranitidine, nizatidine

2

Proton pump inhibitors

Esomeprazole - inhibits gastric parietal cell proton pump, useful in gastric and duodenal ulcers, severe gastroesophageal disease, zollinger-ellison syndrom. Alos lazoprazole, pantoprazole, omeprazol (prilosec) and rabeprazole.

3

Somatistatin analog to inhibit gastric secretion

Octreotide

4

Mechanical barrier protection in the treatment of ulcers

Bismuth subsalicylate (pepto-bismol), Prostaglandins, misoprostol (DOC for ulcers from NSAIDs)

5

Control gastric motility

Metoclopramide (increases resting tone of lower esophageal sphincter, strong anti-emetic)

6

Emetic agents

Ipecac syrup, apomorphine

7

Anti-emetic agents

5-HT antagonists - ondansetron, granisetron.
Neurokinin receptor antagonist - aprepritant
Prochlorperazine, trimethobenzimide, metochlopramide

8

Laxatives

Irritants/stimulants - castor oil, emodin alkaloids, diphenylmethanes.
Bulking - magnesium sulfate (epsom salts), magnesium hydroxide, lactulos, sorbitol, hydrophilic colloid (psyllium seed)
Softeners - mineral oil, glycerin

9

Antidiarrheal agents

opiates, diphenoxylate and atropine, loperamide (Imodium)
Absorbent powders - Kaolin, pectin, bismuth subsalicylate (pepto)

10

Immunosuppressive actions of corticosteriods

Inhibit production of IL-1, 2, 4 and TNF-alpha reduces cytokine-induced inflammation.
Inhibit T-cell proliferation, monocyte and macrophage activation, neutophil chemotaxis, and PLA2 and COX2

11

Calcineurin-inhibiting agents

Cyclosporin, tacrolimus (non-antibiotic macrolid) bind cyclophilins or FKBP leading to reduced IL-2 transcription. Act primarily on helper T-cells.
Nephrotoxicity

12

Non-calcineurin-inhibiting agents

Sirolimus (rapamycin) is another non-antibiotic macrolide. interferes with signal transduction after IL-2 signalling. mTOR is inhibited T cell arrests in G1. Sirolimus eluting stents to prevent restenosis in coronary artery disease.

13

Anti-metabolites

Azathioprine - 6-mercaptopurine
Methotrexate - binds dihydrofolate reductase
Mycophenolate mofetil - lymphocyte specific guanosine depletion.
Leflunomide - pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor

14

Alkylating agents

Cyclophosphamide - bladder toxicity, to treat severe, life-threatening autoimmune and inflammatory diseases

15

Biologics - lymphocyte

antithymocyte globulin
muromonab
rhogam

16

Biologics - anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents

adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept (fusion protein)

17

Anti-cytokine ab

daclizumab, basiliximab

18

co-stimulation inhibitors

abatacept, belatacept

19

complement inhibition (C5)

eculizumab

20

anti-tumor ab

alemtuzumab (b cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia)
cetuximab (colorectal and head/neck cancer)
Bevacizumab (VEGF blocker)
Rituximab (lymphomas and leukemias

21

Prostaglandin pharmacological agents

Alprostadil (PGE1 - vasodilation, treats impotence when injected)
Misoprostol (PGE1 - pregnancy termination with mifepristone)
PGE2 and PGF2alpha with oxytocin to induce labor
Prostacyclin - pulmonary hypertension
Epoprostenol (PGE2) - pulmonary hypertension
Latanoprost

22

cholchicin

binds to tubulin in leukocytes reducing mobility, oral administration, acute gout when nsaids don't works.
Untoward effects - GI disturbance, hair loss, marrow depression, peripheral neuropathy, myopathy, etc.

23

Allopurinol

Inhibits xanthine oxidase - less urate more xanthin, given chronically to prevent attacks but is of no use for acute attacks, may precipitate gout on first administration
causes allergic skin reactions, exacerbate marrow depression from 6-MP

24

Probenecid

Inhibits urate reabsorbtion in distal tubules, interferes with OATs, well tolerated but for allergic dermatitis and rarely aplastic anemia

25

Bethamethason

Fetal lung maturation

26

Short acting beta2 agonists

albuterol, levalbuteral, pirbuteral

27

Long acting beta2 agonists

formoterol, salmeterol, olodaterol

28

Inhaled corticosteroids

Beclomethasin, trimacinolone, budesonide, flunisolide, ciclesonide

29

IgE antibody

Omalizumab - injection