Flashcards in Last misc. chunk Deck (29):
Antihistamines to reduce gastric acid
Cimetidine, famotidin, ranitidine, nizatidine
Proton pump inhibitors
Esomeprazole - inhibits gastric parietal cell proton pump, useful in gastric and duodenal ulcers, severe gastroesophageal disease, zollinger-ellison syndrom. Alos lazoprazole, pantoprazole, omeprazol (prilosec) and rabeprazole.
Somatistatin analog to inhibit gastric secretion
Mechanical barrier protection in the treatment of ulcers
Bismuth subsalicylate (pepto-bismol), Prostaglandins, misoprostol (DOC for ulcers from NSAIDs)
Control gastric motility
Metoclopramide (increases resting tone of lower esophageal sphincter, strong anti-emetic)
Ipecac syrup, apomorphine
5-HT antagonists - ondansetron, granisetron.
Neurokinin receptor antagonist - aprepritant
Prochlorperazine, trimethobenzimide, metochlopramide
Irritants/stimulants - castor oil, emodin alkaloids, diphenylmethanes.
Bulking - magnesium sulfate (epsom salts), magnesium hydroxide, lactulos, sorbitol, hydrophilic colloid (psyllium seed)
Softeners - mineral oil, glycerin
opiates, diphenoxylate and atropine, loperamide (Imodium)
Absorbent powders - Kaolin, pectin, bismuth subsalicylate (pepto)
Immunosuppressive actions of corticosteriods
Inhibit production of IL-1, 2, 4 and TNF-alpha reduces cytokine-induced inflammation.
Inhibit T-cell proliferation, monocyte and macrophage activation, neutophil chemotaxis, and PLA2 and COX2
Cyclosporin, tacrolimus (non-antibiotic macrolid) bind cyclophilins or FKBP leading to reduced IL-2 transcription. Act primarily on helper T-cells.
Sirolimus (rapamycin) is another non-antibiotic macrolide. interferes with signal transduction after IL-2 signalling. mTOR is inhibited T cell arrests in G1. Sirolimus eluting stents to prevent restenosis in coronary artery disease.
Azathioprine - 6-mercaptopurine
Methotrexate - binds dihydrofolate reductase
Mycophenolate mofetil - lymphocyte specific guanosine depletion.
Leflunomide - pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor
Cyclophosphamide - bladder toxicity, to treat severe, life-threatening autoimmune and inflammatory diseases
Biologics - lymphocyte
Biologics - anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents
adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept (fusion protein)
complement inhibition (C5)
alemtuzumab (b cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia)
cetuximab (colorectal and head/neck cancer)
Bevacizumab (VEGF blocker)
Rituximab (lymphomas and leukemias
Prostaglandin pharmacological agents
Alprostadil (PGE1 - vasodilation, treats impotence when injected)
Misoprostol (PGE1 - pregnancy termination with mifepristone)
PGE2 and PGF2alpha with oxytocin to induce labor
Prostacyclin - pulmonary hypertension
Epoprostenol (PGE2) - pulmonary hypertension
binds to tubulin in leukocytes reducing mobility, oral administration, acute gout when nsaids don't works.
Untoward effects - GI disturbance, hair loss, marrow depression, peripheral neuropathy, myopathy, etc.
Inhibits xanthine oxidase - less urate more xanthin, given chronically to prevent attacks but is of no use for acute attacks, may precipitate gout on first administration
causes allergic skin reactions, exacerbate marrow depression from 6-MP
Inhibits urate reabsorbtion in distal tubules, interferes with OATs, well tolerated but for allergic dermatitis and rarely aplastic anemia
Fetal lung maturation
Short acting beta2 agonists
albuterol, levalbuteral, pirbuteral
Long acting beta2 agonists
formoterol, salmeterol, olodaterol
Beclomethasin, trimacinolone, budesonide, flunisolide, ciclesonide