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Neuroscience II (Exam 2) > Learning and Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning and Memory Deck (40):

What type of memory is implicit, non-declarative, and reflexive? It also involves skills and habits that have been used so much that they are automatic.

Procedural Memory


What are the various anatomic substrates within the Procedural Memory category that are responsible for "motor skills" and "non-motor skills"?

Cerebellum (Motor Skills)

Nucleus Accumbens (Non-Motor Skills)


What type of memory is the conscious recognition of learned facts and experiences?

Declarative memory (aka explicit)


What are the two groups that are subdivided into declarative memory?

1. Episodic (memory of events)

2. Semantic (memory or words, language and rules)


Which memory is responsible for recalling a fact/memory for use and may be a subset of short-term memory?

Working Memory


Acquisition of new information.



Retention of new information.



Alterations in the CNS based on use can lead to changes in synaptic functioning and structure is known as _________ .

Synaptic Plasticity


Post-tetanic Potentiation and Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) are examples of _________ .

Changes in Synaptic Functioning


Gain/loss of synapse, Structural changes in dendrites, and structural changes in the soma of the neuron are examples of _________ .

Changes in the structure of Neurons


Which process requires a brief, high-frequency discharge of the presynaptic neuron that increases NT release for about 60 seconds?

Post-Tetanic Potentiation


Which ion channel is most used in Post-Tentanic Potentiation?

Voltage-Gate Ca Channels (increases the release of NT into the synaptic cleft!)


The overall goal of __________ , is to increase the probability of action potentials to occur in the post-synaptic cell.

Post-Tetanic Potentiation


A series of changes in the pre- and post-synpatic neurons of a synapse which leads to increased response to the released neurotransmitter is known as ___________ .

Long-Term Potentiation


Put the following processes involved in Long-Term Potentiation in order:

1. Mg2+ leaves the NMDA channel
2. Na+ enters the cell
3. Cell membrane undergoes depolarization
4. EAA binds to the AMPA channel and opens it up
5. Ca2+ leaves the cell (along with a little bit of Na+)

4 - 2 - 3 - 1 - 5


Put the following processes involved on the post-synaptic cell in order:

1. Increase in adenylyl cyclase/cAMP
2. Ca2+ binds to Calmodulin
3. Increased Na influx in response to EAA
4. Ca2+ enters the cell
5. Phosphorylation of AMPA receptor

4 - 2 - 1 - 5 - 3


Put the following processes involved on the post-synaptic cell in order:

1. Production of NO
2. Ca2+ binds to Calcineurin
3. Ca2+ enters the cell
4. Activation of Nitric Oxide Synthase
5. NO goes to the pre-synaptic cell (increase cGMP and NT release)

3 - 2 - 4 - 1 - 5


Which molecule is responsible for changes in synapse structure (permanent) and creation of new synapses via protein synthesis?

CREB Protein (cAMP Response Element Binding Protein)


Which process is considered the "bridge" that triggers long-term memory storage?

Long-Term Potentiation


NT synthetic enzymes, NT receptors and proteins required for growth/synapse formation are produced by signaling of __________ .

CREB Protein


List the 4 steps involved in creating declarative memories.

1. Encoding
2. Storage of the Information
3. Consolidation
4. Retrieval


Which step in creating new declarative memories is involved in attending to new info (focus), linking to previous memories, and has an important emotional component?



Which step in creating new declarative memories is involved in retention of information over time (getting the memory into short-term storage)?

Storage of the Information


True or False. Our brain long term memory capacity is limited.



What are the three important anatomical substrates that are involved in handling short-term memory information?

1. Hippocampus

2. Parahippocampus

3. Prefrontal Cortex


The basalis of Meynert provides interconnections between the neocortex and amygdala. These interconnections are affected by which disease?

Alzheimer's Disease

(Going to be much less efficient at making short-term memories)


Who is the major physiological player when dealing with the creation of short-term memories?

Long-Term Potentiation

(Temporary Storage!)


Which step in creating new declarative memories is involved in moving the short-term memory into long-term memory? It involves physical changes in synaptic structure.



Which structures are required for the consolidation of short-term memory into the long-term memory bank?

1. Hippocampus

2. Temporal Lobe

3. Papez Circuit


When a memory is repeatedly sent through the ___________, this sets up conditions to induce Long-Term Potentiation and neuronal plasticity back to the cortex.

Papez Circuit


The Hypothalamus/Mammillary Bodies, Anterior Thalamus, Cingulate Cortex and Hippocampus are all part of which circuit?

Papez Circuit


After running the memory through the Papez Circuit numerous times, the _____________ is not required for access to the memory.

Limbic System


______________ are stored in the area of cortex related to the modality of the individual components (i.e. visual information is stored in the visual cortex)

Long-Term Memories


Which step in creating new declarative memories is involved in recalling or using the memory, bringing it into working memory, and can be modified/lost at this point?



Which structures are required for the retrieval of information?

1. Neocortex

2. Parahippocampal Regions

3. Hippocampus


Put the following process in order as it relates to the retrieval of information:

1. Components are received in the hippocampus where the entire memory is constructed
2. Information goes from the Parahippocampus to the Cortex
3. Information related to each component of the memory is sent to the Parahippocampal regions
4. Information travels back to the parahippocampus where it is made more permanent (prolonging the life of the coritcal "trace")

3 - 1 - 4 - 2


The "central executive" directs/uses the "Phonological Loop" and the "Visuospatial Loop". Describe what the actual anatomical structures are for the words in "".

1. Central Executive - Prefrontal Cortex

2. Phonological Loop - Broca's and Wernicke's Area (provide/interpret auditory information associated with the memory)

3. Visuospatial Loop - Occipital Cortex (Provide/Interpret the visual information associated with the memory)


Which anatomical structure is used in the creation of Spatial Memory?

Place Cells (pyramidal cells in CA1)


What role does a spatial map serve in the reconstruction of memory?

Serves as the ANCHOR of the memory


Anatomically speaking, where is the spatial map stored?