Learning and Memory Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Learning and Memory Review Deck (101):
1

the modification of pre-existing behavior and understanding

Learning

2

reduced responsiveness to a repeated stimulus (getting used to something)

Habituation

3

taking a neutral stimulus and pairing it with something that causes an automatic response until the neutral stimulus alone gives us the same response

Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)

4

something that triggers a response without conditioning

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

5

the automatic, unlearned response (like a reflex)

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

6

the originally, neutral stimulus that now triggers a conditioned response

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

7

the response triggered by the conditioned stimulus

Conditioned Response (CR)

8

the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response

Extinction

9

when we re-learn a conditioned response after extinction

Reconditioning

10

the temporary reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction

Spontaneous Recovery

11

a similar stimulus

Stimulus Generalization

12

when we start telling the difference between stimulus and we respond appropriately

Stimulus Discrimination

13

using classical conditioning to classical condition you (classical conditioning you twice)

Higher Order Conditioning

14

if a response is made in the presence of a particular stimulus is rewarding the same response is more likely to occur when that stimulus is encountered again

Law of Effect

15

learning based on rewards and punishments

Operant Conditioning (B.F Skinner)

16

a réponse that has some effect on the world

Operant

17

something that increases the probability that the response immediately before it will occur again

Reinforcer

18

strengthens a response

Positive Reinforcers

19

removal of an unpleasant stimulus (removing something we don't like)

Negative Reinforcers

20

the process through which a particular response is made more likely to occur

Reinforcement

21

how we learn to stop an aversive stimulus

Escape Conditioning

22

the process of learning a response that avoids a stimulus

Avoidance Conditioning

23

a stimuli that signals whether or not reinforcement is available if a certain response is made.

Discriminative Conditioning Stimuli

24

reinforcement of responses to get to a desired outcome

Shaping

25

when we are reinforced with basic needs (food and water)

Primary Reinforcers

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rewards that we learn to like (Money, sleep, etc.)

Secondary Reinforcers

27

determines how and when you will be reinforced

Reinforcement Schedules

28

happens after a fixed number of response

Fixed Ration (FR) Schedule

29

reinforcement after a different number of responses, but the number keeps changing

Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule

30

reinforcement after a certain amount of time

Fixed Interval (FI) Schedule

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when we keep changing the amount of time for reinforcement

Variable Interval (VI) Schedule

32

behaviors learned under partial reinforcement schedule and they are more difficult to extinguish

Partial Reinforcement Effect

33

presentation of a negative stimulus or the removal of a pleasant stimulus after a behavior

Punishment

34

when you stop trying to control your environment after experience suggests that you have no control

Learned Helplessness

35

learning that is not demonstrated at the time it occurs

Latent Learning

36

mental map of your environment

Cognitive Map

37

sudden understanding

Insight

38

when we put information into a form that our memory system can accept and use

Encoding

39

when you learn by watching or seeing something

Observational Learning

40

memory or representations of sound

Auditory Memory (Acoustic Memory)

41

memory or representations of things we see

Visual Memory

42

general knowledge of the world that everyone should know

Semantic Memory

43

keeping information over time

Storage

44

finding information stored in our memory

Retrieval

45

retrieving things without help

Recall

46

retrieving information with the help of clues

Recognition

47

memory from your own past

Episodic Memory

48

memory of how to do something

Procedural Memory/ Procedural Knowledge

49

when you make a conscious effort to remember something

Explicit Memory

50

when you unintentionally recall things

Implicit Memory

51

when you remember things based on the depth that you processed it

Levels of Processing Model of Memory

52

a memorization technique that involves you to keep repeating something

Maintenance Rehearsal

53

when we memorize things based on adding new information to old information

Elaborative Rehearsal

54

when you remember something better if you retrieve it the same way that you encoded it

Transfer Appropriate Processing Model of Memory

55

looking at rewiring your memory overtime you learn something new

Neural Network Model of Memory

56

suggests that we have specialized and separated memory systems

Multiple Memory Systems Model

57

suggests that for us to have something in our memory it has to go through sensory memory, short term memory, then long term memory.

Information Processing Model of Memory

58

short, but long enough to connect one impression to the next

Sensory Memory

59

memory systems that briefly hold incoming information

Sensory Registers

60

your sensory register for visual information

Iconic Memory (eyes)

61

focusing mental resources

Selective Attention

62

memory that lasts about 20 seconds

Short-Term Memory

63

the portion that we are mentally manipulating in order to maneuver it

Working Memory

64

maximum number of items a person can recall perfectly after one presentation of the items

Immediate Memory Span

65

organizing individual stimuli so that they will be perceived as larger units of meaningful information

Chunking

66

a method for determining how long unrehearsed information remains in short-term memory

Brown-Peterson Distractor Technique

67

the unlimited capacity to store information

Long-Term Memory

68

when you remember things from the first few items of a list

Primary Effect

69

when we remember the last few items of a list

Recency Effect

70

stimuli that help us recall information

Retrieval Cues

71

the ability of a cue to aid retrieval depends on how well it taps into information that was originally encoded.

Encoding Specificity Principle

72

states that memory is either helped or hindered by the context in which it is learned

Context-Specific Memory (learning)

73

learning is either helped or hindered by your internal state (mood) when you are learning it

State-Dependent Memory (learning)

74

mental representations

Schemas

75

a method for measuring forgetting

Relearning Method (Ebbinghouse)

76

when forgetting is the gradual disappearance of information

Decay Theory

77

when information is impaired (hurt) by the presence of other information

Interference

78

when forgetting is caused by old information (the old information hurts new information)

Retroactive Inhibition

79

previously learned information keeps us from remembering new information

Proactive Inhibition

80

a painful memory that we keep out of consciousness

Repressed Memory

81

loss of memory or events that occur after a brain injury (in the hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex)

Anterograde Amnesia

82

loss of memory or events that occur before a brain injury (in the hippocampus and temporal lobe)

Retrograde Amnesia

83

a method for organizing information in order to remember it

Mnemonic Strategies

84

learning something over time

Distributed Practice

85

cramming

Massed Practice

86

the influences that account for the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior.

Motivation

87

a reason for behavior

Motive

88

when your behavior is motivated by instinct

Instinct Doctrine

89

innate, automatic dispositions to respond in particular ways to specific things

Instinctive Behaviors

90

when you want to stay the same

Homeostasis (equilibrium)

91

a theory that motivation comes from imbalances in homeostasis

Drive Reduction Theory

92

biological requirements for well-being (things that we need to live)

Needs

93

the state that comes from the imbalance and prompts us to fulfill a need

Drive

94

motivational drive that we have learned to need (such as money)

Secondary Drives

95

a general level of activation (how ready your body is)

Psychological Arousal

96

when we are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal

Arousal Theory

97

when we go towards behaviors that are rewarding and we are pulled away from behaviors that are negative

Incentive Theory

98

motivation that is inside of you

Intrinsic Motivation

99

external rewards

Extrinsic Motivation

100

when you want to eat

Hunger

101

satisfaction of a need such as hunger

Satiation