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Flashcards in Learning Disabilities Deck (19):
1

What is dyslexia? What is the difference between developmental and acquired dyslexia?

-Inability to read
-Acquired = Due to brain damage after learning to read
-Developmental = Acquired just before/after birth

2

What are some symptoms of dyslexia?

-Hyperactivity
-Motor-perceptual impairments
-Emotional lability
-Coordination deficits
-Impulsivity

3

What skills are required for reading?

-Letter identification
-Phonological skills (letters --> sounds based on rules)
-Grapheme skills (use visual gestalt of word to access previously learned sound)
-Sequencing skills (sounds are analyzed and combined into sequences)
-Short-term memory (retain information as it is sequentially extracted from written material)
-Lexicon (knowledge of words)

4

What are the two types of reading?

-Phonological reading (decode by sounds of words)
-Graphemic reading (word is memorized)

5

What are the four causes of reading disabilities?

-Phonological deficiency (impairments with sound awareness)
-Attentional deficiency (attention cannot be easily shifted, problem with association areas of the parietal lobe)
-Sensory deficiency (individuals with reading disabilities need longer interval between tones to discriminate them, remediation-discrimination training)
-Motor deficiency (cerebellar theory - cerebellum controls movement timing and coordination)

6

What tests do individuals with reading disabilities perform poorly on?

-IQ tests (low scores on arithmetic, coding, information, and digit span - ACID profile)
-Perform at chance on left-right differentiation tasks
-Verbal fluency is almost static in dyslexics (unchanging)

7

What is hyperactive child syndrome?

-ADD and ADHD
-Diagnostic criteria: Hyperactivity or restlessness, deficit in sustained attention, impulsive behaviour, duration of at least one year

8

What are the suggested causes for hyperactivity?

-Brain damage
-Encephalitis
-Genetics
-Allergies
-Lead
-Environment

9

What is the treatment for hyperactivity?

-Structured environment
-Pharmacological
-Dietary supplements/changes

10

What is cerebral palsy? What are the motor symptoms? What is it associated with? Where are the brain abnormalities?

-Primary characteristic = motor abnormalities
-Cognitive impairments may occur
-Motor symptoms: spastic, athetoid, rigidity, ataxic
-Associated with: difficult labour, premature birth
-Brain abnormalities: Corticospinal tracts, basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum

11

What is hydrocephalus?

-Increase volume of CSF
-Results from shrinking brain tissue around ventricles, obstruction of flow of CSF results in expansion of ventricles, overproduction of CSF?
-Sudden or gradual onset
-Can cause vision loss, dementia

12

What is autism? What is the autism spectrum?

-Refers to children without obvious focal cerebral disease. Impaired social interactions, bizarre and narrow interests, language and communication abnormalities. May have preserved intellect
-Spectrum = mild and severe symptoms

13

What are pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified?

-Do not meet criteria for autism
-Show some, but not all, symptoms

14

What is thought to cause autism?

-Genetics
-Viruses (rubella in first trimester)
-Toxins and environmental pollutants

15

What are the brain abnormalities of children with autism?

-Larger head and brain size
-Failure of von Economo neurons to develop (associated with rapid communication in the brain)
-Brainstem abnormalities
-Synaptic pruning does not seem to occur

16

What is Asperger's syndrome?

-Less severe than autism
-Hyperplexia (precocious development of reading abilities)

17

What is savant syndrome?

-Narrow range of special abilities
-Triad of retardation, blindness, and musical genius
-Special skill can appear or disappear quickly
-Exceptional memory

18

What is fragile X syndrome?

-Characterized by facial abnormalities, mental retardation
-May be associated with attention deficits, hyperactivity, anxiety, and unstable moods
-Numerous but poorly formed dendritic spines
-Thin cortex
-Increase in ventricular size
-More common and more severe in men

19

What is fetal alcohol syndrome? What are the brain abnormalities?

-Physical malformation and mental retardation
-Brain abnormalities: Small brains, abnormal gyri, abnormal clusters of cells
-Learning disabilities, low IQ, hyperactivity, and social problems
-Mild or severe