Flashcards in Learning Disabilities Deck (19):
What is dyslexia? What is the difference between developmental and acquired dyslexia?
-Inability to read
-Acquired = Due to brain damage after learning to read
-Developmental = Acquired just before/after birth
What are some symptoms of dyslexia?
What skills are required for reading?
-Phonological skills (letters --> sounds based on rules)
-Grapheme skills (use visual gestalt of word to access previously learned sound)
-Sequencing skills (sounds are analyzed and combined into sequences)
-Short-term memory (retain information as it is sequentially extracted from written material)
-Lexicon (knowledge of words)
What are the two types of reading?
-Phonological reading (decode by sounds of words)
-Graphemic reading (word is memorized)
What are the four causes of reading disabilities?
-Phonological deficiency (impairments with sound awareness)
-Attentional deficiency (attention cannot be easily shifted, problem with association areas of the parietal lobe)
-Sensory deficiency (individuals with reading disabilities need longer interval between tones to discriminate them, remediation-discrimination training)
-Motor deficiency (cerebellar theory - cerebellum controls movement timing and coordination)
What tests do individuals with reading disabilities perform poorly on?
-IQ tests (low scores on arithmetic, coding, information, and digit span - ACID profile)
-Perform at chance on left-right differentiation tasks
-Verbal fluency is almost static in dyslexics (unchanging)
What is hyperactive child syndrome?
-ADD and ADHD
-Diagnostic criteria: Hyperactivity or restlessness, deficit in sustained attention, impulsive behaviour, duration of at least one year
What are the suggested causes for hyperactivity?
What is the treatment for hyperactivity?
What is cerebral palsy? What are the motor symptoms? What is it associated with? Where are the brain abnormalities?
-Primary characteristic = motor abnormalities
-Cognitive impairments may occur
-Motor symptoms: spastic, athetoid, rigidity, ataxic
-Associated with: difficult labour, premature birth
-Brain abnormalities: Corticospinal tracts, basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum
What is hydrocephalus?
-Increase volume of CSF
-Results from shrinking brain tissue around ventricles, obstruction of flow of CSF results in expansion of ventricles, overproduction of CSF?
-Sudden or gradual onset
-Can cause vision loss, dementia
What is autism? What is the autism spectrum?
-Refers to children without obvious focal cerebral disease. Impaired social interactions, bizarre and narrow interests, language and communication abnormalities. May have preserved intellect
-Spectrum = mild and severe symptoms
What are pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified?
-Do not meet criteria for autism
-Show some, but not all, symptoms
What is thought to cause autism?
-Viruses (rubella in first trimester)
-Toxins and environmental pollutants
What are the brain abnormalities of children with autism?
-Larger head and brain size
-Failure of von Economo neurons to develop (associated with rapid communication in the brain)
-Synaptic pruning does not seem to occur
What is Asperger's syndrome?
-Less severe than autism
-Hyperplexia (precocious development of reading abilities)
What is savant syndrome?
-Narrow range of special abilities
-Triad of retardation, blindness, and musical genius
-Special skill can appear or disappear quickly
What is fragile X syndrome?
-Characterized by facial abnormalities, mental retardation
-May be associated with attention deficits, hyperactivity, anxiety, and unstable moods
-Numerous but poorly formed dendritic spines
-Increase in ventricular size
-More common and more severe in men