Flashcards in Spatial Behaviour Deck (29):
What are the kinds of space?
-Spatial behaviour (guides us through space)
-Topographic memory (ability to move through space from one place to the next)
-Cognitive maps (mental representations we have of space)
-Body space (surface of the body)
-Grasping space (area around the body)
-Distal space (space the body move in and out of)
-Time space (past and future)
What role does the frontal lobe play in spatial behaviour?
-Important for spatial discriminations
-No vision to navigate environments if frontal lobe is removed
-Guiding responses on basis of stored information in absence of external cues
-Memory for location of objects
What role does the temporal cortex play in spatial behaviour?
-The hippocampus serves as a cognitive map (spatial mapping - damage results in deficits in piloting and dead reckoning)
-Hippocampus is involved in food-caching behaviour in animals (animals use distal spatial cues to find their caches, larger hippocampus in animals that cache)
-Dead reckoning (damage to hippocampus results in disruption of dead reckoning in rats - normally rats can use room cues and self-movement for guidance, can return home when all auditory and olfactory cues are removed)
-Food-storing experience - if prevented, hippocampus size lags behind
-Changes in neurogenesis (largest changes when birds are storing food)
What is the role of the parietal cortex in spatial behaviour?
-Eight visuospatial disorders result from parietal lobe damage (Balint's syndrome - impairments in gaze direction and reaching movements)
-Spatial localization (dot location task - patients with right hemisphere lesions were impaired)
-Depth perception (dot stereograms, normal subjects and left hemisphere damage perceived normally, not right hemisphere damage)
-Parietal cortex (provides coordinate system of visual space and to locate objects in this space)
-In absence of this system, patient can still see object but cannot direct gaze or hand movements toward it
What are the differences between position, cue, and place responses?
-Position response: Navigational behaviour in which an animal uses its previous movements as a cue - that is, movements previously made to arrive at the same location
-Cue response: Navigational behaviour in which an animal locomotes to a position on the basis of its location relative to a single cue
-Place response: Navigational behaviour in which an animal locomotes to a position on the basis of its location relative to two or more cues
What are the principal deficits in spatial orientation in people?
What is egocentric disorientation?
-Posterior parietal lobe damage
-Deficits in perceiving the relative location of objects
What is heading disorientation?
-Posterior cingulate damage
-Unable to set a course; no "sense of direction"
What is landmark agnosia?
-Lingual gyrus damage
-Unable to use prominent environmental features for orientation
What is anterograde disorientation?
-Parahippocampal gyrus lesions
-Unable to learn new representations
What is a deficit in spatial learning characterized by?
-Deficits in spatial learning may be due to the hippocampus' role in spatial navigation or in memory
-Right hippocampus has a special role in complex spatial abilities
What are the different types of topographic disorientation?
-Retrograde spatial amnesia
-Anterograde spatial amnesia
What is topographic disorientation?
-Difficulty finding your way around
What is topographic agnosia?
-Inability to identify individual landmarks
-Can recognize a building as a church, for example, but will not know it it "their" church
What is topographic amnesia?
-Inability to remember relationship between landmarks
What is retrograde spatial amnesia?
-Loss of ability to navigate in environments that were familiar before injury
What is anterograde spatial amnesia?
-Loss of ability to navigate in novel environments
What is unique about London taxi drivers and their spatial abilities?
-They have a larger hippocampus
-Found that spatial tasks activated the: occipitotemporal area, medial parietal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and right hippocampus
-Right posterior hippocampus increased in size as a function of how long person was a taxi driver (shrunk interior of hippocampus, which led to poor spatial ability on new spatial tasks)
What are the different types of spatial behaviour?
What is route following?
-Follow a road or path to a specific object/location
What is piloting?
-Ability to find a place that is not directly marked by a route/cue
-E.g., Morris water maze - use spatial cues in environment to find platform
What is dead reckoning?
-Depends on cues generated from ones own movement
-An early form of navigation that uses direction, speed, and travel time
-Non-human animals (self-movement cues for dead reckoning - sensory flow, movement commands)
What do animals direct their spatial abilities toward? What information do they use to guide their spatial behaviour?
-Animals use spatial ability to forage for food, store food, locate objects, return to a home base, and migrate
-They use visual, auditory, and olfactory information, sightings on the stars, geomagnetic fields, and gravitational force to guide their spatial behaviour
What are place cells?
-Navigate in relation to environment
-Discharge when an animal is in a certain place in an environment (fire in particular places, when animal is changing direction)
-Maintain activity in the dark
-When environment is rotated, cells discharge according to the new pattern
-Prefer visual cues - fire in response to a single one, stop responding when that cue is removed
-Fire in response to objects
-Sometimes active in only one environment
-Activity is linked to ability to move
What are head direction cells?
-Navigate in relation to own self
-Discharge when rat points its head in particular direction (similar to compass needle - fire as long as head is facing a direction)
-Influenced by surrounding cues
-Work in the dark
-Work in horizontal and vertical plane
-Locked in constantly active network
What are grid cells?
-Latitudinal and longitudinal navigation
-Discharge at regular spatial intervals that mark nodes
-Nodes represent points throughout the environment and form a grid
-Orient to different cues and can be influenced by direction
What are the deficits in visuospatial orientation?
-Caused by parietal lobe damage
-Displaced visual attention
-Inability to perceive more than one stimulus
-Defective visual control of movement (optic ataxia)
-Inability to follow moving target
-Defective accommodation and convergence
-Inability to maintain fixation
-Inability to voluntarily direct gaze to objects (gaze ataxia)
-Abnormal visual search
What were the findings of the Hughlings-Jackson study?
-Spatial-perceptual function for right hemisphere
-Unique to humans