Lec 5: Descriptive Epi Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lec 5: Descriptive Epi Deck (29)
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1

Descriptive Epidemiology

describes/characterizes amount and distribution of dx in a population according to:

person
place
time

2

3 objectives for descriptive epi

1. eval of trends
2. basis of planning and eval (i.e. setting up resources/care)
3. ID of problems

3

3 types of Epi hypotheses

1. Positive declaration (alt hypothesis)
2. Negative declaration (null hypothesis)
3. Implicit question (general declaration of what's being studied

4

Positive declaration

1 of 3 types of Epi hypotheses

(alt hypothesis)

5


Negative declaration

1 of 3 types of Epi hypotheses

(null hypothesis)

6

Implicit question

1 of 3 types of Epi hypotheses

(general declaration of what's being studied

7

5 Logical "canons" behind epi hypotheses creation

1. Method of difference
2. Method of agreement
3. Method of concomitant agreement
4. Method of residues
5. Method of analogy

8

Canon

general law/principle

9

Method of difference

1 of 5 logical "canons" behind epi hypotheses creation

when you ensure that all conditions between comparison groups/treatments are exactly the same EXCEPT the one you're studying

10

Method of agreement

1 of 5 logical "canons" behind epi hypotheses creation

the idea that if a factor is present in the occurrence of an event (i.e. dx onset), then it must contribute to the occurrence of that event

11

Method of concomitant agreement

1 of 5 logical "canons" behind epi hypotheses creation

the idea that dependent variable (dx frequency) varies based on the intensity/frequency of exposure to independent variable

12

Method of residues

1 of 5 logical "canons" behind epi hypotheses creation

when contributing independent variable are removed from a condition systematically in order to determine which variable is actually impacting the dependent variable

13

Method of analogy

1 of 5 logical "canons" behind epi hypotheses creation

the idea that an unknown dx that is similar to a better know dx must have similar mechanisms.

14

Epi description in terms of 'person'

age (most important/most impactful on health)
gender
marital status
race
ethnicity
etc

15

Epi description in terms of 'place'

geographical location (exp. urban vs rural) of a population

16

Epi description in terms of 'time'

cyclic/seasonal dx frequencies

point source epidemics/outbreaks (can always be traceback to a single 'point' or 'source' during a single time period

common source epidemics (share sources but occur continuously or sporadically)

Secular time trends (when dx frequency changes gradually over time)

17

Epi description in terms of 'person': GENDER

health differentials r/t:

reproductive needs/anatomy
environmental factors (like dangerous jobs)
gender gaps in care

18

Epi description in terms of 'person': MARITAL STATUS

married people have lower mortality

married men more likely to be overweight/obese

19

Epi description in terms of 'person': RACE/ETHNICITY

Black ppl have higher mortality than white ppl

Inuit/indigenous ppl have higher morbidity (exp. TB & hep, suicide, etc) that the rest of U.S.

Asian ppl have lower mortality than white ppl

Hispanic/Latino ppl have lower mortality than white and black ppl but have diabetes

20

Epi description in terms of 'person': RACE/ETHNICITY

Black ppl have higher mortality than white ppl

Inuit/indigenous ppl have higher morbidity (exp. TB & hep, suicide, etc) that the rest of U.S.

Asian ppl have lower mortality than white ppl

Hispanic/Latino ppl have lower mortality than white and black ppl but have stuff like diabetes

21

Epi description in terms of 'person': SES, Country of Origin, Religion

Other metrics for 'person'

22

Epi description in terms of 'person': SES, Country of Nativity/Origin, Religion

Other metrics for 'person'

23

2 types of dx/case clustering

spatial
temporal

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Spatial dx/case clustering

1 of 2 types of dx/case clustering

when health events cluster over a particular place

25

Temporal dx/case clustering

1 of 2 types of dx/case clustering

when health events cluster over a particular time period

26

cyclic/seasonal dx frequencies

1 of 4 types of Epi description in terms of 'time'

changes in the frequency of a health outcome that ebbs and flows in a cyclic or seasonal manner throughout a longer time period

27

point source epidemics/outbreaks

1 of 4 types of Epi description in terms of 'time'

can always be traced back to a single 'point' or 'source' during a BRIEF time period (usually a single incubation period if infection)

may involve sharp increase in cases followed by a slow decline in cases

28

common source epidemics

1 of 4 types of Epi description in terms of 'time'

involves intermittent/ongoing exposure to the source of a health outcome over time

29

Secular time trends

1 of 4 types of Epi description in terms of 'time'

when health outcome frequency changes gradually over time