Lec 69: Introduction to Ethical Analysis Flashcards Preview

Fundamentals > Lec 69: Introduction to Ethical Analysis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lec 69: Introduction to Ethical Analysis Deck (22):
1

Traditional Approach

uses moral reasoning. Clinicians must recognize the ethical dilemma, assess this situation, decide what they want to do and then use several approaches to double check this decision.
7 steps

2

Adujunctive Approach

1. Casuistry
2. Care Perspective
3. Narrative Ethics
4. Feminist (and Communitarian) Ethics

3

Casuistry

What other cases they know of in which the same ethical values are at stake?

4

Care Perspective

How will what they do affect their relationships with their patients?

5

Narrative Ethics

Is there more about the patient and persons like the patient that the care provider needs to know?

6

Feminist (and Communitarian) Ethics

Are there people involved but more "on the periphery" whose needs should be taken into account?

7

Traditional Approach Step 1

Recognize that a conflict exists

8

Traditional Approach Step 2

Decide what additional data are needed

9

Traditional Approach Step 3

Make the decision

10

Traditional Approach Step 4

Test the consistency of the decision by comparing it with comparable situations

11

Traditional Approach Step 5

Consider how this problem can be prevented in the future

12

Traditional Approach Step 6

Review past experiences to check for biases

13

Traditional Approach Step 7

Assess how the decision to be made could affect the patient/care provider relationship

14

Libertarian Model

Unfortunate, not unfair.
Neglect of history

15

Egalitarian

Veil of Ignorance.
Decent minimum

16

Utilitarian

Assessing values (maximize utility/benefits, minimize suffering/negatives)

17

Balancing Approach

Balance utility and dignity

18

Fourth Theory

Reduce pain (pain is an evil which leads to harm) since its perception provides the status of sentience (a moral status) to an organism.

19

Fifth Theory

Relationships provide moral status (e.g. patient-physician, each patient interaction is unique and provides moral frame of reference).
Social reciprosity/relationships > strangers/outsiders
More social interaction = greater moral status (“Social Networks”)

20

Norm

Prima Facie (impermissible) standard, e.g. don’t break it. Tabulated in guidelines.
Guideline 1: All sentient beings have level of moral status. Non-sentience = no moral status (e.g. anencephalic individuals).
Guideline 2: “competitive” in that mere sentience (e.g. fetus) = no moral status also
Case: Guideline 2 supports stem cell therapy if proven to work
Guideline 3: “Sentience (Theory 4) and cognition (Theory 2)” increase moral status
Guideline 4: “moral agency (T3) and human species properties (T1)” says if human has moral agency then they have equal basic rights, and vice versa.
Guideline 5: “Theory 4 and 5” shows that animals’ moral rights scale with potential for pain. If potential for pain increases then moral status also increases. (Pain proportional to moral status)

21

Vulnerable populations

deserve more protection (unable to protect their own interests). E.g. elderly.
Outcome 1. Policy of full prohibition on activities involving such groups
Outcome 2. Allow practice without conditions (fully permissible)
Outcome 3. Conditional practice (partial permissibility)

Most studies utilize outcome 3, though this outcome may diminish benefit of research to such groups. Compromise: If certain groups cannot be treated equally then establish levels of risk/harm.

22

Sympathy

concern for welfare, not preferential responsiveness.
Limited when bias/partiality affect reasoning of those distant and dissimilar (strangers) to us.
Hume  exercise “calm judgments” and be impartial

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