Flashcards in Lec 69: Introduction to Ethical Analysis Deck (22):
uses moral reasoning. Clinicians must recognize the ethical dilemma, assess this situation, decide what they want to do and then use several approaches to double check this decision.
2. Care Perspective
3. Narrative Ethics
4. Feminist (and Communitarian) Ethics
What other cases they know of in which the same ethical values are at stake?
How will what they do affect their relationships with their patients?
Is there more about the patient and persons like the patient that the care provider needs to know?
Feminist (and Communitarian) Ethics
Are there people involved but more "on the periphery" whose needs should be taken into account?
Traditional Approach Step 1
Recognize that a conflict exists
Traditional Approach Step 2
Decide what additional data are needed
Traditional Approach Step 3
Make the decision
Traditional Approach Step 4
Test the consistency of the decision by comparing it with comparable situations
Traditional Approach Step 5
Consider how this problem can be prevented in the future
Traditional Approach Step 6
Review past experiences to check for biases
Traditional Approach Step 7
Assess how the decision to be made could affect the patient/care provider relationship
Unfortunate, not unfair.
Neglect of history
Veil of Ignorance.
Assessing values (maximize utility/benefits, minimize suffering/negatives)
Balance utility and dignity
Reduce pain (pain is an evil which leads to harm) since its perception provides the status of sentience (a moral status) to an organism.
Relationships provide moral status (e.g. patient-physician, each patient interaction is unique and provides moral frame of reference).
Social reciprosity/relationships > strangers/outsiders
More social interaction = greater moral status (“Social Networks”)
Prima Facie (impermissible) standard, e.g. don’t break it. Tabulated in guidelines.
Guideline 1: All sentient beings have level of moral status. Non-sentience = no moral status (e.g. anencephalic individuals).
Guideline 2: “competitive” in that mere sentience (e.g. fetus) = no moral status also
Case: Guideline 2 supports stem cell therapy if proven to work
Guideline 3: “Sentience (Theory 4) and cognition (Theory 2)” increase moral status
Guideline 4: “moral agency (T3) and human species properties (T1)” says if human has moral agency then they have equal basic rights, and vice versa.
Guideline 5: “Theory 4 and 5” shows that animals’ moral rights scale with potential for pain. If potential for pain increases then moral status also increases. (Pain proportional to moral status)
deserve more protection (unable to protect their own interests). E.g. elderly.
Outcome 1. Policy of full prohibition on activities involving such groups
Outcome 2. Allow practice without conditions (fully permissible)
Outcome 3. Conditional practice (partial permissibility)
Most studies utilize outcome 3, though this outcome may diminish benefit of research to such groups. Compromise: If certain groups cannot be treated equally then establish levels of risk/harm.