Lec 71/72: Neoplasia I/II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lec 71/72: Neoplasia I/II Deck (50):
1

Aflatoxins:

- Associated Cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma

- Comments: in some countries is the most common cancer (stored grains)

2

Alkylating agents:

- Associated Cancer: leukemia/lymphoma

- Comments: side effect of chemotherapy

3

Alcohol:

- Associated Cancer: squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx and upper esophagus, pancreatic carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

4

Arsenic

- Associated Cancer: squamous cell carcinoma of skin (back in the day women in England would apply arsenic to the skin to lighten it so people would't know they worked in the field), lung cancer (present in cigarettes), and angiosarcoma of liver

- Comments: in cigarettes

5

Asbestos:

- Associated Cancer: lung carcinoma and mesothelioma (pleura)

- Comments: exposure to asbestos are more likely to develop lung cancer than mesothelium

6

Cigarette smoke:

- Associated Cancer: carcinoma of oropharynx, esophagus, lung, kidney and bladder (entire system is lined urothelium, carcinogens cleared in this system and hang out and bath the surfaces)

- Comments: most common world wide; most important is polycyclic hydrocarbons

7

Nitrosamines:

- Associated Cancer: stomach carcinoma

- Comments: responsible for high rate of stomach carcinoma in Japan

8

Napthylamine:

- Associated Cancer: urothelial carcinoma of bladder

- Comments: derived from cigarette smoke

9

Vinyl chloride:

- Associated Cancer: angiosarcoma of the liver

- Comments: occupational exposure, used to PVC pipes (well studied = high yield)

10

Nickel, chromium, beryllium or silica

- Associated Cancer: lung carcinoma

- Comments: occupational exposure

11

EBV

- Associated Cancer: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Chinese male or African individual are more prone and presents as a neck mass), Burkitt lymphoma and CNS lymphoma in AIDS

12

HHV-8 (human herpes virus)

- Associated Cancer: Kaposi sarcoma (tumor of endothelial cells, raised purple lesions; older Eastern European males; tx excise tumor; AIDS patients = tx the virus; transplants = tx, slightly reduce immunosuppression)

13

HBV and HCV (hepatitis) B - DNA C -RNA

- Associated Cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma

14

HTLV-1

- Associated Cancer: adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

15

High risk HPV (subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33)

- Associated Cancer: squamous cell carcinoma of vulva, vagina, anus, and cervix (adenocarcinoma of cervix)

16

Ionizing radiation: nuclear reactor accidents

- associated cancer: papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (seen in chernoble), AML, CML

- comment: generates hydroxyl free radicals

17

Nonionizing radiation: UVB sunlight most common source

- basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of skin

- Damages of DNA of pyrimidine dimers in DNA, normally excised, but over run ability

- xeroderma pignosa

18

What is the role of proto-oncogenes?

- essential for cell growth and differentiation

- mutation = oncogene, leads to unregulated cell growth

- growth factors, growth factor receptors, signal transducers, cell cycle regulators

19

PDGFB: platelet derived growth factor

- overexpression, autocrine loop

- Astrocytoma

20

ERBB2 (HER2/neu) epidermal growth factor receptor

- amplication

- subset of breast carcinoma

21

RET: neural growth factor receptor

- Medullary carcinoma of thyroid (MEN2A, MEN2B and sporadic medullary carcinoma of thyroid)

- point mutation (RET testing and proactively removal thyroid)

22

KIT (stem cell growth factor receptor)

- GI stromal tumor

23

RAS gene family: GTP-binding protein

- point mutation

- carcinomas, melanoms, and lymphoma

24

ABL: tyrosine kinase

- t (9:22) with BCR

- CML and some types of ALL (in adults) philadelphi ph+

25

c-MYC:

burkitt lymphoma

- translocation (8-14) involving IgH

over expression of myc will result in over transcription of growth factor

26

N-MYC:

neuroblastoma

over expression of myc will result in over transcription of growth factor

27

L-MYC:

lung carcinoma

over expression of myc will result in over transcription of growth factor

28

3 Things that make the growth a neoplasia

1. Irreversible
2. Not regulated
3. Monoclonal

29

Neoplasm

Abnormal mass of tissue whose growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with normal tissue.
1. No use to the host
2. Persists beyond stimulus

30

Dysplasia

Change in size, shape or organization of a cell

31

Hamartoma

A benign, tumor-like, disorganized structure containing tissue that is normal for that organ

32

What do cancer cells excrete to keep them alive longer?

Anti-apoptotic BCL6

33

Pleomorphism

Change in size and shape

34

Progression tumor pathway

Primary neoplasm --> progressive growth --> invasion --> detachment --> embolization --> survival in circulation --> arrest --> extravasation --> evade host defense --> progressive growth --> metastasis

35

Why are cancer cells more motile?

Loss of E-cadherin = no intercellular adhesion = movement

36

Travel via lymphatic spread

Carcinomas

37

Travel via hematogenous (blood) spread

Mostly sarcomas with some carcinomas (most that enter blood do not end up metastasizing)

38

How does cancer inhibit the immune system?

1. Activates PD-1 and CTLA4 in T cells to lower activity
2. Increase in myeloid-derived suppressor cells
3. Increase in T regulatory cells
4. Decreased expression of HLA-DR in APCs
5. Switch Macrophages from M1 to M2 = Increased IL-10

39

How do you inherit cancer

KO of both alleles involved

40

What viruses are connected with liver cancer?

Hepatitis B and C

41

p53

tumor suppressing gene

42

Protooncogenes

Caretaker pathway - Absolutely necessary for cell growth and differentiation

43

Mutations to proto-oncogenes

Oncogenes

44

CDK4

Important for cell cycle G1 phase progression (G1-S phase)

45

ABL

Protooncogene that is important for cell differentiation and division as well as adhesion. Deletion of its SH3 domain turns it into an oncogene

46

CCND1

Produces cyclin D-1. Regulate CDKs. Important for protein production during the cell cycle. Oncogene results typically in mantle cell lymphoma.

47

Cyclins and CDK complexes

Drive cell cycle by phosphorylating certain proteins.

48

Staging system for cancer

Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM)

49

Rb mutation

Results in constitutively free E2F allowing progression through the cell cycle and uncontrolled cell growth

50

Diagnosing a tumor

1. Biopsy
2. Immuno staining
3. Serum tumor markers

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