LEC50: Cell Cycle Progression and Checkpoints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LEC50: Cell Cycle Progression and Checkpoints Deck (49):
1

what determines entry into S phase?

phosphorylation of pRb

2

what are the 3 kinds of signaling/feedback in the cell cycle?

1) the previous cyclin-CDK is responsible for activating the next step 

2) negative feedback, the next step turns off the previous step - if the 2nd complex is active, it causes phosphorylation and inhibition of the previous step 

3) amplifying signal: previous complex starts the next complex to go, but there are steps that cause amplification fo that 2nd complex to cause a signal

3

what upregulates cyclin D?

Erk pathway: 

Growth factors bind to cell surface receptor 

Receptor is a RTK on the membrane 

It auto-phoshporylates 

Activates Ras

Ras > Raf

Raf > Mek

Mek > ERK 

ERK upregulates Cyclin D 

4

what do cells need to proliferate? why?

cells need growth factors b/c they need upregulation of cyclin D, and cyclin D is what causes proliferation

5

what does Rb mean

retinoblastoma

6

how is Rb normally? what does it do?

Rb normally bound to E2F

When Rb bound to E2F, Rb acts as a repressor, prevents E2F from functioning; E2F expression is off in Rb presence 

 

7

what is E2F?

a transcription factor that regulates gene expression 

turned OFF when Rb binds it 

turns ON when Rb gets phosphorylated

E2F's target = Cyclin E

8

what disrupts Rb-E2F complex? resulting cascade?

Cyclin D-Cdk4 and Cyclin D-Cdk6 phosphorylate Rb 

this releases Rb from E2F 

E2F can now act as a transcription factor; regulates Cyclin E 

Cyclin E levels increase from E2F transcription activation

Cyclin E-Cdk2 become active; Rb is further phosphoryalted as Cyclin E-Cdk2's substarte; and E2F is totally released

9

what are the 2 kinds of E2F targets

1) high affinity target: low levels of E2F will turn it on 

2) low affinity targets: dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase, DNA pol-Alpha

10

describe signal cascade of pRb, E2F, leading into S phase?

Rb bound to E2F means no gene expression that's E2F dependent occurs 

Growth factors upregulate Cyclin D

Cyclin D-Cdk4 or 6, active now, phoshporylates Rb enough that E2F turns on Cyclin E

Activated Cyciln E-Cdk2 phosphorylates Rb further 

E2F now fully active 

Now can enter into S phase

 

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11

what regulates Cyclin A gene expression?

E2F 

Cyclin A is a low affinity E2F target; so Cyclin A is only turned on when E2F is fully free of Rb 

THEN Cyclin A is upregulated, and Cyclin A-Cdk2 can initiate origin firing for DNA synthesis

12

what triggers DNA synthesis?

Cdk phosphorylation 

13

what are the stipulations for origin firing?

1) origin must fire for DNA synthesis to occur 

2) EACH origin must fire ONLY ONCE to get a 2N to 4N DNA synthesis 

 

14

what assembles to initiate DNA replication? when?

pre-replication compres (pre-RC) 

occurs during G1

15

what activates polymerase to do DNA replication/start origin firing?

Cyclin E-Cdk2 and Cyclin A-Cdk2 phosphorylate polymerase

polymerase is then active

ONLY CAN OCCUR when the poylmrease is sitting ON THE ORIGIN - it is a localized ability, kinase is localized to the origin, polymerase gets phosphorylated and fires

16

what ensures initiation of replication occurs only 1x each round?

Cdk phosphorylation of proteins involved in DNA replication includes licensing factors which ensure initiation occurs only 1x each round

factors then are degraded

17

what are the dual effects of phosphorylation at the origin of replication?

1) phosphorylation fires the origin 

2) phosphrylation removes the marks of an origin that's ready to be fired- ensures firing doesn't occur again once it already has

18

what mediates entry from G2 to M?

Cyclin B/Cdk1 phosphorylation

19

what is stimulated by mitotic Cdk-cyclin activation?

1) nuclear envelope breakdown

2) chromosome condensation

3) mitotic spindle formation 

4) targeted protein degredation 

20

what causes nuclear membrane to break down?

Loss of a pressor means Cyclin B levels increase, due to transcriptional upregulation 

Cdc25 becomes phoshprylated in response to completion of DNA synthesis 

this activates Cyclin B/Cdk1

a component of the nuclear membrane is a substrate for Cyclin B/Cdk1; when phosphorylated, Lamins A and C break down, thus nuclear membrane breaks down

 

21

what makes up nuclear membrane?

lamins, which polymerize w/ each other 

22

is nuclear envelope breakdown reversible? how?

yes

When Cyclin B/Cdk1 activity decreases, phosphorylation of Lamins is reversed by a nonspecific phosphatase which removes a phosphate from Lamin, and Nuclear membrane spontaneously will reform 

 

23

what is condensin?

protein that mediates condenstion of DNA into chromsome 

when ACTIVE, mediates condensation of DNA into chromsomes 

24

when / why does chromoatin condensation occur?

condensin condensation of DNA occurs as a subsrate of Cdk1/Cyclin B complex, like nuclear membrane breakdown 

when nuclear membrane breaksdown due to phosphorylation of Lamins by Cdk1/Cyclin B, Condensins come together and chromatin condensation occurs

25

how does sister chromatid separation occur? when?

anaphase of mitosis 

Cohesin holds sister chromatids together 

Separase, enzyme, is bound to an inhibitor, Securin, is Inactive 

when the APC is active, it Ubiquitinates Securin, making Separase active 

Separase thus cleaves Cohesin, and sister chromatids can separate

 

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26

how does APC become activated?

b/c it's associated w/ a co-factor, either Cdc20 or Cdh1 

when activated, Ubiquitinates and degrades Securin; this results in Separase activation 

thus Sister chromatids Separate 

27

what are APC's dual functions?

APC responsible for sister chromatid separation 

AND

active in degredation of Cyclin B, which is necessary for exit from Mitosis

28

G1: 

Kinase? 

Cyclin? 

Mechanism of upregulating cyclin transcriptionally? 

Substrate of the kinase? 

Effect of phosphorylation?

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29

G1-S: 

Kinase? 

Cyclin? 

Mechanism of upregulating cyclin transcriptionally? 

Substrate of the kinase? 

Effect of that phoshporylation?

 

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30

S phase: 

Kinase? 

Cyclin? 

Mechanism of upregulating cyclin txnly? 

Substrate of the kinase? 

Effect of that phosphorylation? 

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31

what causes mitotic exit? 

what events occur as result?

Cyclin B degradation -> Mitotic exit 

Chromosomes decondense, nuclear membrane reforms

32

checkpoint?

an ordered series of events dependent on completion of a previous step 

senses a problem, causes cell cycle to stop 

 

33

why doesn't cyclin de-upregulation exist?

because checkpoints do exist

34

what is restriction point?

mediated by pRb phoshporylation in response to growth factors 

lack of growth factors causes cell to arrest in early G1 at this restriction point 

provides connection btwn extracellular signaling & cell cycle control 

after restriction pt, cell is committed to DNA replication

35

what does loss of checkpoint control cause?

uncontrolled proliferation aka cancer

36

how does growth factor signaling contribute to proper cell cycle vs cancerous?

growth factor signaling results in transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D 

this triggers phosphorylation of pRb and release of E2F

this regulation is lost in cancer

37

what does DNA damage activate?

2 checkpoints: G1-S and entry into M

38

purpose of each DNA damage checkpt?

1. prior to S phase, so cell doesn't replicate w/ damage 

2. prior to M phase, so cell doesn't undergo cell division w/ damaged chromosomes

39

describe the normal state of the G1 checkpoint

normally, the tumor suppressor p53 binds to Mdm2, a ubiquitin ligase that polyubiquitinates p53 and keeps p53 low in absence of DNA damage

 

40

in presence of DNA damage, describe activation of G1 checkpoint

kinase cascade is triggered, Mdm2 and p53 become modified 

p53 also is acetylated 

this disrupts Mdm2-p53 interaction, p53 is no longer ubiquitinated 

p53 levels increase; p53 binds to DNA and turns on gene expression, mainly via p21, the CIP inhibitor 

thus CELL CYCLE ARRESTS b/c p21 binds to Cyclin E/Cdk2 and prevents entry into S phase 

 

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41

what are p53's effects in regulating cell cycle

cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, depending on if damage is great in cell (apoptosis) or reparable (cycle arrest)

 

42

if DNA damage is present, what prevents entry into Mitosis?

DNA damage here triggers kinase cascade resulting in inhibitory phoshprylation of Cdc25 

thus, no activation of Cyclin B/Cdk1 occurs 

 

43

how does unreplicated DNA prevent entry into mitosis?

Cdc25 must be phosphorylated to be active 

this phosphorylation doesn't occur until DNA synthesis is complete, and full 4N DNA is achieved 

44

what is spindle checkpoint function?

arrests cells in mitosis until all chromosomes are properly aligned in metaphase 

45

when spindle checkpoint is OFF, what happens?

APC is active; it ubiquitinates securin 

this means separase is active 

cohesin is cleaved

sister chromatids are separated

46

when spindle checkpoint is ON, what happens?

what causes this?

APC is inactive 

do not get separation of sister chromatids 

APC inactivity maintained if there's a microtubule attached to every kinetochore; if each kinetochore has a MT, they align the sister chromatid, and those MTs are responsible for pulling the sister chromatid apart 

so an unoccupied kinetochore, unbouned by a MT, can send a signal to APC to inhibit it 

47

what determines APC activity in the spindle checkpoint?

kinetochore occupany 

if there isn't a MT at any kinetochore, then APC activation is DELAYED so checkpoint is ON 

48

how could spindle checkpoint be exploited therapeutically

a MT disrupting agent will prevent a cell from dividing b/c it depolymerizes all of the MT in a cell, as if any MT are depolymerized, and even 1 kinetochore unoccupied, you trigger the spindle checkpoint and cause same cellular response as you would by depolymerizing all of the MTs

49

how can chemotherapeutic drugs use cell cycle to their advantage?

if disrupte cell cycle by disrupting DNA damage or disrupting spindle formation, or have any DNA breaks, then cell will arrest at a checkpoint 

 

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