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Flashcards in Lect. 1 Reactions Deck (32):

How can mass action and the input of energy change/modify reactions?

By changing the content of the products or reactants we can drive them reaction in the opposite direction by increasing the other sides amount
Input of energy: couple a non favorable reaction deltaG>0 with a favorable rxt like ATP hydrolysis


How do kidney’s balance pH?

pH is high fewer H+ removed and not as much reabsorption of HCO3-
pH is low reverse driving H2CO3 reaction


Where is Cu a coenzyme what what enzymes?
Know 1 min.

Cytochrome C oxidase
Superoxide dismutase
Lysyl oxidase
Theme oxidase


With what enzymes is Fe used as co factor?

Heme proteins


Where is Mg used as a cofactor?

ATPases (All)
Adenyline cyclase


Se cofactor for what enzymes?

Glutathione peroxidase


Zn cofactor? What other cofactor is used for the same enzyme?

Super oxidize dismutase (also for Cu)
Alcohol dehydrogenase
Alkaline phosphotase
Trans factors
Carbonic Anhydrase


How do gastric proton pump inhibitors work? Found what cells? What are they prescribed for and possible side effects?

They block the K+, H+ ATPase which would pump H+ EC/K+ intra.
Parietal cells in Stomach
Prescribed for Acid reflux, ulcers indigestion heart burn
Inefficiency in gastric enzymes, decreased digestion


Competitive Enzyme inhibition

Bind to E at AS, increase Km and do not change Vmax
Overcome incrs. [S]
Ex’s Malonate


Noncompeting inhibition

No change in Km bind to E and ES will lower Vmax
Allopurinol High []’s


Uncompetitive inhibition.

Lithium ex.
Lower Vmax and Km by same factor, binds to ES complex only


What does the inhibiting of metalloenzymes due?

Cheating agents remove metal cofactor EDTA


What can aid in lead poisoning?

Pb can inhibit the biosynthesis of heme by blocking aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and ferrochelatase
Present with abdom. Pain, headaches, irrit, impaired NS
CA-EDTA with dimercaperol aids due to Pb displacing Ca on EDTA excrete thru urine


Where is Biotin. Used?
B 12?
Vit C?
B 2?

Carboxylases pyruvate and acetyl CoA
B12 = Cobalamin Methylmalonyl Co A mutase
Asorbic Acid =Vit C; hydroxylases
B2 =riboflavin redox enzymes NADH dehydrogenase; pyruvate dehyrdogenate complex
B3 = Niacin NAD= NaDP+. ; B5= Panthothenic acid —>coenzyme A


What is looked for in a Myocardial infraction and why?

Troponin cTn-I found only in cardiac muscle, inhibitory subunit of troponin higher levels detected after infraction
Others as lactate dehydrogenase and amino transferase can be used but they are not as specific


What are other enzymes used for medical diagnosis? Why not use these?

LDH-1, CK-MB creatine kinase, AST/SGOT1 aspartate amino transferase/ serum glut are oxaoloacetate transaminase
Issues is found not to be as specific as others


Describe Niemman Pick disease.

Lysozyme enzyme (shyphyngimylenase deficient) cannot breakdown sphygomylelin so caused enlarged liver, spleen, and affects CNS
Cherry red spot in eye Hallmark of disorder


hemolytic disease of the newborn

Rh - mother and Rh+ baby, mother produces Anti Rh antibodies can pass into the baby and lyse RBCs passes through placental barrier, prevent by injections
Babies present with jaundice, edema, liver and spleen failure


Issues with Cl- cause Cystic fibrosis

Due to misfolding of a Cl- transporter, cannot push Cl- effectively out of respiratory cells, causes INTRACELL INC., pushes Na+ and H2O to follow, making mucus deficient in H2O therefore it is very thick making person more likely to have bacterial infections and problems breathing


Crohn’s disease

Chronic auto immune chronic inflammation of bowl ,ilium distal, causes inefficient in absorption of nutrients, more flatuation, bloating,
surgical removal of diseased tissue, treatment rough anti inflammatory meds, immunosuppressive and nutritional supple


Vit A disorders

Malnutrition: night blindness, visual impairments, xerophthalima (dry eye), Bitlot’s spots (build up in conjunctiva of eye), failure for wounds to heal, dry skin
iostretenonin—> causes cleft palates, heart abnormalities
Polar bear livers contain. A lot of Vit A so don’t eat them!!!!


Vit D disorders

Ricket’s child/adult osteomalacia aka pathological fractures
Not enough intake, too little sunlight, hypothyroidism, conditions effect absorption of lipids, poor function of liver kid.


Vit. C disorders

Required for Collagen formation; and FA oxidation with caritine,
Scurvy purple spots, poor wound healing, bruising,


Vit B disorders

B2 riboflavin dermatitis, mucus lining of mouth inflamed
B3 Niacin : skin sour Pellagra with diarrhea, dermatitis, dimentia


What does G tell us?

About the spontaneity of the reaction


What is the differences b/w a lyases and ligases?

Both add or remove atoms but Ligases ALWAYS use ATP to do so!


Irreversible inhibition does what to Km and V max? Example given by Dr. Z?

Km in theory does not change b/c you are still able to bind substrate to the active site
The V max will decrease
Similar to non-competitive except it is irreversible
Must synthesize new enzyme to overcome
Aspirin as a irreversible inhibitor of prostaglandin synthase COX1/2


What lipids are found on the inter and and outer leaflet?

Inner choline, sphygomylin and glycolipids outer
Inositol, serine and etholanomine inner


Explain SGLT1 transporter. Name drug that is blocking these for Diabetes

Uses the gradient created by ATPase N/K to move Na down the gradient bringing along a glucose molecule would be unfavorable


Explain the Na-Ca2+ antiporter. Where is this transporter effected?

Uses gradient created by Na/K ATPase to move Na into the cell and Ca out to keep intracellular calcium level 10,000 lower than EXC
When treating cardiac arrhythmia the Na/K ATPase is blocked with meds causing there to be less of a gradient for Na slowing the activity of this transporter making intracellular Ca higher, i sarcoplasmic Ca more of reaction During excitation


Cystinurea caused by?

Due to problems with transport uptake of cystine, Arline, lysine and orthidine stay trapped in kidney create stones causes Renal colic pain in lower abdomen in waves


Hartnups disease issues associated with

Transporter found in kidneys and intestines. that cannot bring in non-polar AA’s and neutral ex’s alanine, tryptophan, valine, leucine tryptophan is precursor for NAD, serotonin, melanin can cause issues with tissue sensitivity hypersentsityivity, muscles tremors