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Flashcards in Lect 3 Nutrition Deck (26):

What are the 3 Purposes of Nutrition

Supply energy to perform work

Provide building blocks for biosynthesis

Support functioning of metabolic pathways


What is the breakdown of sources of energy ( _ % of kcal) ?

CHO: 60% of kcal

Lipids: 30% of kcal

Protein: 10% of kcal


Energy Conversion of Each Nutrient to kcal/g

CHO: 4 kcal/g

Proteins: 4 kcal/g

Lipids: 9 kcal/g

Alcohol: 7 kcal/g


What Factors Influence BMR






Calculating Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)

TEE = BMR x physical activity level (PAL)

Thermic effect of food and Non-Exercise Induced Thermogenesis also components


BMI Calculation

BMI = weight (kg) / height2 (m2)


BMI < 18.5



BMI 35.0 - 39.9

Obese Stage 2


BMI 18.5 -24.9



BMI >40.0

Morbidly Obese


BMI 25.0 - 29.9



BMI 30.0-34.9

Obese Stage I


Site for Digestion & Absorption

  • Small Intestine
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum: Bile acids, Vit B12


What is Crohn Disease and what does it cause?

Treatment options?

  • Autoimmune disease causing chronic inflammation/damage of bowel mucosa (distal ileum)
  • Nutritional deficiencies caused by malabsorption
    • Vit B12, Fat Soluble Vitamins (ADEK), Fats
  • Tx: Surgical resection of diseased segments


What are 6 common Electrolytes/Dietary Minerals and their sources?

K (unprocessed foods)

Na (Dietary salt)

Cl (Dietary salt)

Ca (Milk/Dairy)

PO4 (Dairy)

Mg (Meat, Fish, Veg, Nuts)


Vitamin B1 name?

Coenzyme form?

Deficiency caused by?

Clinical manifestations?

  • Thiamine
  • Coenzyme: Thiamine Pyrophosphate (TPP)
  • Deficiency: Alcoholism
    • Wernicke's --> Ataxia, nystagmus
    • Korsakoff's --> Psychosis
    • Dry Beriberi --> Muscle wasting, partial paralysis
    • Wet Beriberi --> Cardiac failure, peripheral edema


Vitamin B2 name?

Coenzyme form?

Deficiency from?

Clinical manifestations?

  • Riboflavin
  • Coenzyme: FAD/FMN
  • Deficiency: Poor dietary intake or malabsorption syndromes
  • Clinical: Corneal neovascularization, magenta colored tongue, cheilosis, stomatitis


Vitamin B3 name?

Coenzyme form?

Deficiency from?

Clinical Manifestations?

  • Niacin
  • Coenzyme: NAD(H) and NADP(H)
  • Deficiency:
    • Hartnup Disease: Impaired AA absorption from intestines and reabsorption in kidneys --> Tryptophan deficiency --> Niacin deficiency
    • Malnutrition --> Diets high in untreated corn
  • Pellagra (Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis, Death)


Vitamin B5 name?

What coenzyme is it a part of?

What is it required for?

Deficiency from?

Clinical manifestations?

  • Pantothenic Acid 
  • Synthesis of CoA
  • Required for acylation and acetylation 
    • Signal transduction and enzyme activation/deactivation
  • Deficiency: extreme starvation
  • Dermatitis, numbness, paresthesia, muscle cramps, enteritis, alopecia, hypoglycemia


Vitamin B6 name?

What is it converted to in the body?

Deficiency from?

Clinical manifestations?

  • Pyridoxine
  • Converted to pyridoxal phosphate in body
    • Aminotransferase reactions (ALT & AST)
  • Deficiency: Isoniazid Therapy
  • Clinical: Sideroblastic anemia (can't incorporate iron into heme)


Vitamin B7 name?

What is it a cofactor for?

Deficiency from?

Clinical manifestations

  • Biotin
  • Cofactor for Carboxylation Enzymes
    • Gluconeogenesis (Pyruvate carboxylase)
    • FA Synthesis (Acetyl CoA carboxylase)
  • Deficiency: excessive raw egg consumption
  • Clinical: Alopecia, rashes, bowel inflammation, muscle pain


Vitamin B9 name

Coenzyme for what type of reactions?

Deficiency from?

Clinical manifestations?

  • Folic Acid
  • Tetrahydrofolate (THF) coenzyme for 1C transfer/methylation reactions
  • Deficiency:
    • Folate pool depleted in alcholics and pregnancy
      • Pregnancy --> Neural Tube Defect (spina bifida)
    • Side effect of drugs --> Methotrexate
  • Clinical: Macrocytic megaloblastic anemia, Homocysteinemia


Vitamin B12 name

What is it converted to?

Deficiency from?

Clinical manifestations?

  • Cobalamin
  • Converted to coenzymes methyl- or deoxyadenosyl cobalamin
  • Deficiency:
    • Pernicious anemia (most common)
  • Clinical: Megaloblastic anemia, neuropathies, homocysteinemia


Vitamin C name?

Cofactor for?

Deficiency from?

Clinical Manifestations

  • Ascorbate
  • Cofactor: Collagen and carnitine synthesis, Dopamine --> Norepi, Antioxidants
  • Deficiency: Dietary, no citrus fruits or green vegetables
  • Clinical: Scurvy with Petechiae (purple hemorrhagic spots under skin), ecchymoses, spongy/bleeding gums, and poor wound healing


Vitamin A main functions and associated structures?

Deficiency from?

Clinical Manifestations?

When is it toxic?

  • Vision
    • Retinal
  • Maintenance of Epithelium
    • Retinol & Retinoic Acid --> Normal differentiation of epithelial cells into specialized tissues
  • Deficiency: Extreme malnutrition, Fat malabsorption, Liver cirrhosis (most common in US)
  • Clinical: Night blindness, visual impairment, xerophthalmia (dry eye syndrome), growth impediment, dry skin, alopecia.
  • Toxicity: Teratogenic in pregnancy
    • Birth defects such as cleft palates and heart abnormalities


Vitamin D forms?

Functions in different systems?


  • Forms
    • Ergocalciferol (D2)
    • Cholecalciferol (D3): sun exposure
    • Calcifediol (25-hydroxy Vit D): storage form in liver
    • Calcitriol (1, 25-hydroxy Vit D): active vit D, formed in kidneys in response to PTH (increase Ca and PO4)
  • Functions
    • GI Tract: induce syn of Ca binding proteins, increase PO4
    • Kidney: stim reabsorption of Ca and PO4 secretion
    • Bone: act on osteoblast receptor --> osteoclast activation --> bone resorption
  • Deficiencies: 
    • Inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption of lipids, poor liver/kidney functioning, hypoparathyroidism, lack of sun exposure
    • Childhood Rickets (Skeletal abnormalities)
    • Adult osteomalacia (fewer deformities)