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1

polymicrobial

mixed organisms infecting an area

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How do bats explain disease transmission?

tree roosting bats see different bats every night, urban bats sleep in same hole every night, seeing same bats.
Disease transmission is higher in Urban bats populations

3

infectious dose

number of infectious organisms or particles needed to cause an infection

4

what alters infectious dose?

it changes between individuals and diseases d/t differences in immune response and virulence

5

How is ebola transmitted?

blood to blood contact.
-can not be through mosquitos as they eat the blood but do not put it back inside
-needles hold blood inside them and then reinfect it into blood. so this could cause infection
-could be a nosocomial infection because requires contact

6

Necrotizing fasciitis

-staph aureus causing "flesh eating disease"
-usually polymicrobial (bacteria doesn't cause tissue damage, immune response does)

7

How do microbes affect the earth

equal over 50% of carbon on earth
-90% of nitrogen and phosphate is produced by bacteria
-contribute O2, recycle nutrients like N2

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enrichment culture

the use of selective growth media that support certain classes of microbial metabolism while excluding others

9

Why are microbes beneficial?

-make vitamins (B12)
-enzyme functions d/t bacteria
-breath sulphur, fix nitrogen
-diverse and abundant
-live in many extreme environments

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where are microbes located in body

everywhere, diverse populations grow in different areas of the body d/t different levels of sweat, salt, sun, nutrients
-"normal flora" - live in body and aide human with everyday processes (if too little or too many cn cause issues), may only be helpful in certain environments
*contais 10 times as many microbes as cells

11

how are microbes bad?

small portion of microbes are bad (causative agent of disease)
-principle cause of mortality

12

how are antibiotics bad, was is the post antibiotic era

-becoming less useful d/t antibiotic resistant pathogens
-an end to modern medicine -- pathogens may become leading cause of death once gain

13

MRSA

Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus
-bacteria is normal habitant of skin, nose, resp and GI tracts.
-can causes skin/soft tissue/ bone infections, pneumonia, sepsis
-MR means first line treatments oil, second are less effective and have more side effects; need IV not pill forms
-in SASK 8% of SA is MR

14

how many antibiotic resistant infections were there in 2013?
how many in canada, how many deaths?

23000
-18000 in canada and 2000 deaths

15

how many people die annually from C. Diff? what is this?

15000
-infection of the bowel linked to long term antibiotic abuse

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golden age of microbiology

19th century; principles of disease pathology and microbial ecology were established

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autoclaving

physical method of controlling microbial growth by applying pressure to water to create steam (sterilizing materials like surgical instruments)

18

Robert Hooke

1665
First microscopist to publish a systematic study of the world as seen under a microscope
Built the first compound microscope and observed biological materials
Published his findings in Micrographia (looked at nematodes, mites and mold filaments)
First to observe distinct units of living material (termed "cells" to describe cork)

19

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

1680
First individual to observe single-celled microbes (such as bacteria)
Single-lens magnifier (stronger than Hooke’s)
Observed insects (lice and fleas), large single cells (protists and algae), and bacteria (from mouth)
-Detailed observations about the shape and size of the species
-Observed microbes in his mouth before and after drinking hot coffee (suggested that heat kills microbes)

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Louis Pasteur

-believed in biogenesis; not spontaneous generation
-discovered pasteurization --> heat liquid to 55 degrees destroying bad bacteria and preserving food
-Germ theory of disease

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spontaneous generation

theory that living microbes can arise spontaneously without parental organisms

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biogenesis

complex living things come only from other living things, by reproduction

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germ theory of disease

microorganisms cause disease by invading and replicating within it's host

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Robert Koch

-isolated pathogenic and showed how that bacteria caused disease:
-microb is found in disease but not healthy subjects
-microb isolated from diseased subject and are in pure culture
-the pure culture is injected into healthy subject which dies of disease
-same microbe collected from new disease subject

-confirmed germ theory of disease

1)Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)
-Vibrio cholera (cholera)

25

Joseph Lister

Surgeon that developed aseptic technique in 20th century
-sterilized instruments/ wounds c/ phenol
(noticed pole diving from infectious wounds and less infection c/ clean instruments

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bacteriology

study of prokaryotes

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mycology

study of fungi

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phycology

study of algea

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protistology

study of protozoa

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virology

study of viruses

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immunology

study the immune system

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prokaryotes

lack membrane bound nucleus, small, single cells, no organelles, cell wall
-bacteria
-archaea -->extremophiles (extreme environments) and methanogens (produce methane for digestion and gas production); do not cause disease

33

eukaryotes

have membrane bound nucleus

34

what are the three types of eukaryotic microbes

Protozoa and algae (protists)
-protozoa --> motile heterotophes (eat organic food). Ex) ameba
-Algae --> chloroplasts for photosynthesis. Base of the food web.

Fungi
heterotrophic, nonmotile, grow by nutrient source. Include single cell (yeast), filament (mold), complex (mushrooms). Can cause infection in immunocompromised pts

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Virus

nonliving, infectious particles
Genetic material takes over cell metabolism to generate viral particles (duplicates)

36

E.coli

2.5 um in length
-bacterial prokaryote
-live in intestine, normally harmless and aid in digestion
-some can cause gastroenteritisand lead to kidney failure

37

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

size: 7 um
-eukaryotic yeast used to make beer and wine

38

explain Log scales

10^8 = 100 000 000
10^5 = 100 000

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endemic

a native disease that prevails continuously in a geographic region (Ebola in the Congo)

40

Epidemic

a sudden and simultaneous outbreak or increase in the number of cases of disease in a community

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Pandemic

a disease afflicting people over a wide geographic area (sometimes worldwide).

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Ebola Virus

characterized by hemorrhagic fever
-virion (particle) contains 1 RNA strand --> new particles are formed by buds of host cells
-bats are the reservoir
-only transmittable after symptoms appear.

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zoonotic disease

transmitted through animals

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symptoms of ebola

- fever, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, unexplained bleeding or bruising, muscle pain
*can only spread when individual has symptoms

45

-how is ebola transmitted

direct contact with:
-body fluids of individuals infected with ebola (blood, vomit, urine, faces, sweat, semen, spit, eat)
-contaminated objects (needles)
-infected animals (contact c/ infected blood, meat)

-portal of entry: broken skin or unprotected mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth)

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epidemiology

statistical analysis to determine cause of disease

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public health

assessing the role of infectious disease in the health of large populations

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Ebola Virus: Outbreak

-2014 was the largest
-usually outbreaks are localized in remote locations
-2016 outbreak 30 thousand suspected cases, 15000 confirmed. 11000 deaths

-death rate only 35% compared to the previous 50-90%

49

ebola: therapeutic interventions

-vaccines and meds (antivirals) being tested to fight ebola: ZMapp (provides passive immunity), rVSV-ZEBOV (winnepeg one - has single ebola gene causing body to create antibodies - cured 100% of test subjects)
-test symptoms as appear
-significant interventions to increase chance of survival: provide IV fluids and electrolytes, maintain O2 and BP, treat infections

50

how did ebola have a re-outbreak in guinea?

-survivor of ebola had virus in seminal fluid for more than 500 days after cured - wife died d/t transmission.
*humans can be a resivoir for a little bit of time

51

PCR?

DNA sequencing, texting for virus
- smaller the number the more viral particles in system