Lecture 2 - biomolecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2 - biomolecules Deck (20):
1

biochemistry

study of the compounds and reactions of living systems

2

what are the four kinds of macromolecules?

Carbohydrates --> polymer
Lipids --> not polymer
Proteins --> polymer
Nucleic acids --> polymer

3

polymer

identical molecules (monomers) linked together to form chain (polymer)

4

proteins

functions unit of life
-composed of amino acids formed from C,H,O, N
-different shapes and sizes
-react c/ molecules that fit its feature (enzymes, antibodies)

5

amino acids

20 different made from C

6

protein native state

functional three-dimensional for of a protein

7

denatured protein

disruption of native state
-kills pathogens
-accomplished with chemicals (bleach, iodine, and heat

8

how does our body digest proteins

by denturing them with enzymes.
If we cook food we are denaturing them already therefore easier for us to digest

9

what are Lipids

composed of many C-H and some O
-non polar and hydrophobic

10

what are the three biologically important lipids?

Triglycerides
Phospholipids
Sterols

11

Saturated Fats

-2 carbons per hydrogen
-solid at room temp
-animal products

12

what is the difference btw saturated and unsaturated fats

number of bonds between carbons

13

Unsaturated fats

1 carbon per hydrogen therefore carbon is double bonded (harder to break)
-liquid at room temp
-oils

-Trans Fat --> orientation around double bond (/\/\//\/\/\\/\ - trans; /\/\_/\/\- cis)

14

carbohydrates

composed of C, H, O
-can be rings: glucose, Ribose)
-monosaccharides - 1 ring (glucose)
-disaccharides - 2 rings (lactose, sucrose)
-polysaccharides - 2 or more

15

polysaccharide functions

-structure and support (cell walls in plants and algae made from cellulose), protection, nutrient and energy stores

16

cellulose

-most abundant organic compound on earth
-cotton = cellulose (need enzyme (bacteria) to break it down so it is water soluble)
-fiber in diet

17

what i the genetic age

development in technologies to sequence and analyze DNA

18

what is genetic sequencing useful for?

-Medicine
-Human evolution
-Diversity of life
-Organism function in the environment
-diagnostics --> identifying disease causing agents, cancer genes

19

how does DNA become proteins?

DNA transfers information to RNA (TRANSCRIPTION)
RNA convers info into amino acid sequence which codes for protein (TRANSLATION)

20

What are DNA and RNA composed of?

nucleotides : C,H,O,N,P
- nucleotide is made of nitrogen base, pentose sugar, and phosphate.

-DNA "DEOXYribose" = H in place of OH
-RNA "ribose" = extra OH on sugar ring