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Flashcards in lecture 4 - genetics: microbes and humans Deck (22):


all genes in an organism



DNA molecule that contains genes
-plasmids also carry genes in bacteria



segment of DNA that codes for protein or RNA


what are plasmids

loops of DNA separate from the host chromosome
-prokaryotes like bacteria.
-either in DNA or RNA form never both
--replicate using host machines
-non-essential but carry genes that act as "cheat codes for survival"


sexual reproduction

-in sexual organisms like humans
-need 2 parents to have sex
-sex generates new combination of genes


what are offspring of sexual reproduction?

subsets of parent genes (not "mix" because then all siblings would be the same)


asexual reproduction

-Bacteria reproduce asexually
-One cell divides into two identical daughter cells
-Each daughter gets full copy of parent’s genes
-No gene mixing


how do organisms evolve with asexual reproduction

-heritable variation in genes
1. horizontal gene transfer
2. random mutatons


Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT)

- A few genes are transferred from donor cell to recipient cell
-new cells can be passed to daughter cells
--not sex
-between chromosomes is rare
-by plasmids is more often


how does HGT affect evolution?

-acquisition of beneficial genes
-potential to invade new niche and speciate

-ex) e.coli requires genes for attachment (genes to make pili) .now e.coli has ability to stick to urethra and cause UTI
Ex) changes in metabolism -  e.coli can eat lactose where salmonella can not (ecoli survive in infant gi track


what are the three mechanisms of HGT



explain conjugation of HGT

**what a plasmid does; active.
- plasmid wants to replicate therefore makes bacteria host give another copy to another host -- like a genetic infection in bacteria

-pillis bridge forms between donor and recipient cells
-F factor (plasmid) is copied from donor into recipient cell


how do plasmids and HGT contribute to antibiotic resistance?

Plasmids can carry antibiotic resistance genes, especially in clinical setting
-Antibiotic resistance ensures that the plasmid is essential to the cell, so is maintained
-plasmid genes can move between species - can spread a. resistance to different pathogens


explain transformation of HGT

-free donor DNA fragment is transferred into live recipient cell
1. natural
-bacteria eat DNA (binds and is ingested into cell to be degraded) sometimes acquires portions of these genes.

-if eat antibiotic resistant gene they can acquire this


explain Fred Grifts expieriemet involving HGT 1928

-has staphococcus pneumoniae (pathogen) deadly to mouse
-produces capsule that forms slimy environment
b) single mutation to delete capsule and then get “rough cells”  become non-pathogenic

-number c  he gave mouse heat killed capsuled form to mouse and mouse good
d) Game mouse dead capsid and live Rough cells  mouse dies - dna passed from dead cells to live cells and was able to infect host (kill mouse)


explain transduction HGT

-passive process mediated by virus (phage) infecting bacteria
-virus infects bacteria cell and replicates its DNA accidentally packaging some bacterial DNA as well- gives that dana to other bacteria when transmission occurs


in terms of plasmids what does incompatibility mean?

you can have all kinds of different plasmids in a cell but not two of the same because they need to use the same copy machines at the same time (competition)


plasmid copy number

number of copies in a cell
-can be from 1 to 1000s


what are the three forms of plasmid mobility?

-how they enter and exit cells (if they aren't beneficial cell usually drops them through cell division - only ones that don't have resources to replicate (low copy number))

-Conjugative: Contain all genes to facilitate their own transfer to other cells

-Mobilizable: Contain some transfer genes, and cannot be transferred in the absence of a conjugative plasmid
-piggy back with another C.P.

-Non-mobile: only replicate through vertical gene transfer
(cant move from cell to cell with


what are the three ways that plasmids facilitate resistance?

*carry genes that encode for …..
1. Efflux pump (allows cell to take antibiotics, but this will pump everything out and thus kill a cell)
2, Antibiotic degrading enzyme
3. Antibiotic altering enzyme


what is a point mutation? what is the effect?

change in one base pair of a genome.
-changes what amino acid or protein that genome codes for

"single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)"
-most are harmless

Wild-type: healthy gene for hemoglobin (CTT codon for dana)
-mutation of one base codon from T to A
-rather than coding for healthy hemoglobin, now you have sickle cell hemoglobin
-usually not advantageous unless in malaria stricken environment


how common are point mutations

-1 SNP every 300 base pair (bp) human (3000000000 bp)
-For every 10000000 possible snp
-Parent offspring 50 more snp that parent didn’t have
-How evolution occurs