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1

How does 35mm Film work differently in a movie camera?

Film frames travel (wind) horizontally through 35mm camera.

In a movie camera however they travel vertically.

2

What are the dimensions for a still frame 35mm?

36mm X 24mm

3

What are the dimensions of a 35mm Movie frame?

22mm X16 mm

4

What are the dimensions of a super 35mm movie?

24.89mm X 18.66mm

Common variant of 35mm movie with increased picture area/image quality.

5

Advantages of using full frame 35mm:

Larger sensor = larger individual pixels.
So better quality images at higher ISO sensitivities, as the larger individual pixels can capture more light, resulting in less unwanted electronic noise encroaching into images.

a broader dynamic range makes them better equipped to capture the full brightness.

A full-frame camera allows you to take in more of the scene.

6

Disadvantages of using a full frame 35mm

Expensive
Heavy
Big
Not good for working at a distance.

7

What is aspect ratio?

The geometrical shape of the motion picture image.

Ratio is that of a horizontal plane : vertical plane

8

How are aspect ratios presented?

Aspect ratios are commonly expressed as either whole units or decimal figures.

Originality ‘Academy Ratio’ is expressed as either 4:3 or 1: 1.33 but more accurately it is 1:1.37

9

What does aspect ratio refer to?

Only to shape, regardless of screen size e.g phone, tablet, cinema.

It is a universal current standard shape of screen.

10

Explain the aspect ratio example 16:9 a.k.a 1:1.78

The ratio of the horizontal plane is 16 units against a vertical plane of 9units whether the units are cm or metres or pixels.

11

What are pixels?

A digital unit of picture resolution

12

What does aspect ratio impact?

Image composition
Prestatyn: projection, screening, transmission, streaming.
Editing
Presentation of archive material

13

Cinema aspect ratio

1:1.33/ 1.37 ‘academy’ closest to 4:3 original television/ computer screen.

14

‘Academy Flat’ aspect ratio

1: 1.85

Closest to 16:9 dvd/ blue ray standard 1:1.78

15

European matted ratio

16mm 1:1.66

16

Common anamorphic / matted widescreen format

1: 2.35

Good for group dialogue shots and interiors.

17

What are the two ways widescreen cinema is created?

Anamorphic
Matted

18

What is anamorphic widescreen?

The widescreen frame is created by optically ‘squeezing’ the picture (exposing a distorted image’ onto a standard 35mm frame (4:3 aspect ratio) then I squeezing the picture during projection using a reverse-optic lens.

19

What is Matted Widescreen?

The widescreen dean created simply by masking top and bottom area of the standard 35mm gran either camera or during projection.

20

Aspect ratio of widescreen and masking area.

Area of widescreen projection/ transmission e.g 1:1.85

Black matted area of full (1:1.33) 35mm movie frame.

21

What is HARD MATTE?

Widescreen created by masking in camera, imposing black bars that are permanently recorded into top & bottom of the picture. (This is done on DSLR video mode)

Digital cinema cameras may be switchable to allow recording in different aspect ratios.
I.e generating black bars off the top and bottom of the sensor, to record a permanent widescreen image.
E.g recording a 1.2.35 image off a standard 1:1.78 (16:9) sensor.

22

Soft (or open) Matte

Widescreen indicates A’s frame guides only camera viewfinder (no recording of black bars) so masking is done during projection.

Originally used for cinema for projection.

Favoured for 4:3 commercial television transmission not supported by many film directors.

23

What is pan and scan?

Pan and scan was a method or re-composing widescreen films for original 4:3 television transmission with the view of filling the square tv screen.

It’s a process of re framing and re cutting and new frame movements that filmmakers never intended.

24

What is IMAX aspect ratio?

1: 1.43

25

How are archive sources with different aspect ratios presented?

The difference in aspect ratio means it may need exploration of the image through close up camera motion previously ROSTRUM CAMERA, now MOTION GRAPHICS. This is dramatised enhancement/intensification of still image content, supported by voice, sound, music.

26

What is the advantage of anamorphic widescreen?

You don’t have to throw any of the information or cut anything out.

27

What determines picture quality?

Video compression
Colour (bit depth and sampling - range and accuracy of colour)
Lighting
Lens quality
Motion and shooting methods

28

What is a clapper board?

It is used to sink up the video with the audio. This is done because both are recorded with different devices and in post production they need to be put together.