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1

Editing definition

Uk/USA: cutting
France: montage

film editing is the art, technique and practice of assembling shots into a coherent sequence. The job of an editor is not simply to mechanically put pieces of a film together, cut off film slates or edit dialogue scenes.

2

Who is Lev Kuleshov?

He is considered to be the very first film theorist as he was the leader of the Soviet montage theory. For Kuleshov the essence of the cinema was editing, the juxtaposition of one shot with another. =Kuleshov effect

3

Define coverage

This is a single shot that gets all the action so the advantage is that it’s a quick way for the audience to establish what is happening.

A disadvantage is that it may lack detail and precision and may be flat and eventually dull.

4

What is conventional cover?

Wide/long shots (the master shot)
Medium-long/medium shots
Close ups

Conventional cover is the usual shots used in production

5

What is the Time Code?

Precise editing usually down to 24th of a second.

HH : MM : SS : FF
Hours : Minutes : Seconds : Frames

E.g 01: 12 : 36 : 17

SMPTD Timecode
(Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers)

6

How is it displayed?

The way timecode is designated and displayed/ recorded may vary from one device to another and may be either done automatically or by selectable setting.

E.g time of day timecode is usually automatic.

Alternatively HH (hour) 01, 02, 03ah be set manually and used to represent ‘reel’ - media / card, with sequential timecode recorded continuously until reset.

7

Why is a timecode used?

Every frame of a film has to be uniquely identified by its timecode, in order to ensure that the computer software accurately retrieves and handles every frame of every clip properly.

8

When must a timecode be used?

It is also crucial when exporting an electronic EDL (Edit Decision List) to covert an offline edit (low resolution- smaller, ‘faster’ files) to an online edit of the original media (full resolution - larger files / film)

9

How is timecode recorded?

Timecode is recorded as invisible ‘meta data’ hidden by default but available in file properties, along with all other technical AV/digital information.

Timecode is displayed within editing software. Timecode counter may be displayed as ‘burned in’ timecode visible in corner of picture to assist post production.

10

Cutting room 1: logging

Taking your rushes and labelling and sorting them into ‘bins’

Usually the first time the editor sees the film it is out of sequence and context. It is there job to find the fluidity and nuances will later be incorporated into the film.

11

Cutting room 2: Assembly

The editor considers all the visual and audio material collected on the shoot for each scene and then reorders it in the way to tell the story best.

The larger the Film budget the sooner editing starts. Usually when the filming first begins.

12

Cutting room 3: rough cuts

The editor may work alone and show daily cuts to the director/ producer.
Scenes are placed in order and checked for continuity. This allows for revisions and new ideas to be tested.

13

Cutting room 4: ‘First’ Cut

The first cut is the rough cut that is accepted by the editor, the director and the producer.
The sequence and order are basically fixed but changes can still be made.

14

Cutting room 5: fine cut

The fine cut no longer focuses on the entire film, but on the details of each and every cut.
The fine cut emphasises and strengthens the rhythms and structures identified in the first cut.

15

Cutting room 6: final cut

One a fine cut is agreed with the editor, director and producer, the sound designer, music composer and title designer.
Sound effects and music are created and added the final cut.
This is when the film goes to print for audience testing and distribution.

16

What are the seven basic principles of editing?

Choose the best footage (‘print’/ select usable takes)
Create a coherent narrative
Develop a cohesive flow
Adjust style, pace and mood
Support the films angle/view/message
Polish with effects, graphics and music

17

Basic edits: The Cut

Instantaneous change from one shot to another.
Second (incoming) shot replaces first (outgoing) shot on the screen.

18

Basic edits: jump cut

When two shots of the same image are cut together without major change in camera setup. The angle of the camera may be changed slightly.
This results in a noticeable ‘jump’ in the image on the screen, often making time removal visible.

19

Transitions: fade in/ out

Fade in = a (normally) black screen that gradually changes to an image as the shot appears.
Fade out= a shot that gradually disappears as the screen darkens (a.k.a ‘fade to black’)

20

Transitions: dissolve

A transition between two shots in which the first image gradually disappears while the second image gradually appears.
For a moment the two images blend in superimposition

21

Transitions: the wipe

A transition between shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating one shot until it had completely replaced it with another.

22

Editing techniques: rhythmic editing

Creates patterns in editing based on the tempo of the cuts, as well as the duration of the shots.

So Cutting together longer takes with fewer edits can slow a films pacing.

And using shorter takes with more frequent edits can accelerate pace.

Increasing the tempo of the editing as a scene progresses can be a way of increasing tension or building suspense.

23

Function of editing 1: list four functions of editing.

Editing may also have a symbolic function.
Mise-en-scene & cinematography create implicit meaning within shots
Editing creates implicit meaning between shots
Editing shapes our perception of spatial (special awareness ) and temporal (relating to time) relationship between shots as well as between scenes.

24

List four key editing techniques

Continuity editing
Elliptical editing
Parallel editing
Montage editing

25

Continuity editing

A set of editing techniques used to create a cohesive sense of space and a sense of continuous time by maintaining consistent graphic, spatial, and temporal relationships between shots. Designed to flow unobtrusively. (Invisible editing)

26

What is an eyeline match shot?

First shot shows character looking offscreen.
Second shot shows us what the character is looking at.

27

Shot-reverse shot

Alternatives between two shots framed from reverse angles.

Classical and typically used for dialogue/ conversations scenes

28

Match (cut) on action

Action begun in the first shot is completed in second shot
Maintains continuous action and therefore continuous sense of passage of time across edits.

29

Parallel editing/ crosscutting

Continuity editing techniques that alternates back and forth between scenes.

Used in two ways:

To depict simultaneous action by cutting between two or more events taking place in different locations at he same time.
To create thematic parallels by cutting between action taking place in spectate locations at different points in the same time are linked theme.

30

Elliptical editing

Editing techniques that remove part of the visual narrative action deemed unnecessary to plot development so that it takes less time to unfold on screen.