Lecture 1 Flashcards Preview

Cells > Lecture 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (11):

What happens to cells when they become specialised?

Polarity is established (some diseases remove polarity)


What determines the relative amounts of each organelle?

cell type


What is the cytosol?

everything soluble in a cell that isn't attached to any structures


What is an adenovirus?

has no capsule - naked
causes respiratory illnesses


What are the features of cancer?

- more frequent cell division
- tighter packing of nuclei
- less frequent goblet cells
- nuclei all over the place
- polarity compromised
- cells stacking up
- cell invasion
- cells in middle of mass die

(cells migrating and not being kept in tissue boundaries leads to cancer)


What are some features of all cells?

- cell membrane
- genetic material
- have RNA molecules and proteins
- are composed of the same basic chemicals: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, fats and vitamins
- regulate the flow of nutrients and wastes that enter and leave the cell.
- reproduce and are the result of reproduction.
- require a supply of energy.
- are affected and respond to the reactions that are occurring within them


What is the size of a cell?

10-50 micrometers


What is the size of a virus?



What are the main components of cells?

Basement membrane

Extracellular fluid (ECF):
- ions (Na+, Cl-, PO42-, CO32-, Mg2+, Ca2+)
- soluble proteins
- soluble carbohydrates, sugars
- vitamins
- amino acids
- hormones
- nucleotides (ATP)
- lipids
- cholesterol



Saliva, urine, bile, sweat, milk etc


Relationship between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

endosymbiosis of prokaryotic cells with other so the organelles in eukaryotic cells derive from the incorporation by prokaryotes


Which processes require ATP?

- movement against concentration gradient
- movement of organelles
- movement of membrane (ruffling)
- growth and migration of cells
- cell division
- muscle contraction