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Flashcards in Lecture 1: A&P Deck (16)
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1

Anatomy of Nose & Nasal cavity

nasal root, nasal bridge, nasal tip, columella, naris, ala nasi, septum (vomer bone, perpendicular plate of ethmoid, quadrangular cartilage), turbinates/concha, choana

2

Anatomy of Upper Lip

philtrum, philtral ridges,
Cupid’s Bow, vermilion, tubercle

3

Anatomy of Oral Cavity

hard palate, velum, tongue, alveolar ridge, faucial pillars, (palatine) tonsils, lingual tonsils, oropharyngeal isthmus

4

Anatomy of Hard Palate

alveolar ridge/alveolus, mucoperiosteum, rugae, incisive papilla, palatine raphe, foveae palati, premaxilla, maxilla, palatine bone

5

Anatomy of Uvula

mucosa, glandilar tissue, adipose, vascular, no fxn

6

Anatomy of Pharynx

oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx

7

Anatomy of Eustachian Tube

connects middle ear w/ pharynx

8

Anatomy of Velum

oral surface (median palatine raphe), nasal surface, anterior portion (tensor tendon, glandular tissue, adipose, palatine/velar aponeurosis

9

Muscles of the VP

Levator veli palatini (velar elevation “sling”)
Superior pharyngeal constrictor (constricts pharyngeal walls to narrow vp against)
Palatopharyngeus (narrow pharynx)
**Palatoglossus (depresses the velum or elevate tongue)
Musculus uvulae (“bulges” for seal on nasal surface)
Tensor veli palatini (open E-tubes)

10

VP Motor innervation

Glossopharyngeal (IX)
Vagus (X)
Accessory (XI)
Trigeminal (V)
Facial (VII)

11

VP Sensory innervation

Vagus (X)
Glossopharyngeal (IX)

12

Physiological Subsystems for Speech

Respiration
Phonation
Resonation
Articulation
Prosody

13

Physiology of the VP

Velar mvmt
Lateral pharyngeal wall mvmt
Posterior pharyngeal wall mvmt
Passavant’s Ridge (shelf-like ridge of muscle projecting from posterior pharyngeal wall into pharynx)

14

VP Closure Variations

Normal speakers: coronal, sagittal, circular, circular w/ Passavant’s Ridge (p. 234)
Type of activity: speech, swallow, gag, vomit
Timing: vp must be completely closed before phonation begins
Phonemes: affected by tongue mvmt of co-articulated sounds; greatest force on fricatives & consonants
Rate & fatigue: ↑speech rate & fatigue =↓closure force

15

Factors that Affect VP Function

Lack of m. bulk (esp. levator)
Abnormal m. insertion
Malposition of repaired m.
Scar tissue (velum)
Less faucial pillar pressure
Short velum(may not be able to connect with pharynx – for speech)
Deep pharynx(may not be able to connect with velum – for speech)

16

Changes in VP Function

Growth & Age
- Facial bones continue growth into early adulthood
- Pharynx: newborn 4cm long; adult 20cm long
- Nasopharynx: infancy>adult=+80% volume
- VP fxn does not deteriorate as a factor of aging