Lecture 4: Velopharyngeal Dysfunction (VPD) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4: Velopharyngeal Dysfunction (VPD) Deck (18)
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1

Types of resonance disorders

Hypernasality
Hyponasality
Cul-de-sac
Mixed

2

What is Hypernasality?

coupling of oral & nasal cavities during nonnasal (oral) sounds; “muffled” due to damping effect (sound absorption) thru turbinates

3

What is Hyponasality?

reduced nasal resonance of nasal sounds due to blockage; “stuffed up”

4

What is cul-de-sac resonance?

structural obstruction; muffled; “potato-in-the-mouth”

5

What is mixed resonance?

combo on different sounds; common in apraxia

6

What are other effects of VPD?

Nasal air emission
Nasal grimace
Weak or omitted consonants
Short utterance length
Altered rate and duration
Compensatory Artic

7

What is nasal air emission?

“rustle” due to vp leak or fistula on plosives, fricatives, affricates

8

What is nasal grimace?

m. contraction above nasal bridge in effort to achieve vp closure

9

Weak or omitted consonants

due to reduced air pressure in oral cavity

10

Short utterance length

frequent replacing of air pressure

11

Altered rate and duration

longer time for utterances, longer VOT

12

How do they compensate articulation?

Middorsum palatal stop a.k.a. palatal-dorsal
Backing
Velar fricative
Oral consonant nasalization
Vowel nasalization
Nasal snort
Nasal sniff
Pharyngeal
Posterior nasal fricative
Glottal stop
/h/ for voiceless plosives
Breathiness

13

Describe dysphonia

Breathy
Hypernasal
Hoarse
Low intensity
Glottal fry
Hyperfunctional
Vocal fold nodules

14

What are some factors that impact VPI and speech?

Size of VP opening
Inconsistency of VP closure
Abnormal artic
Abnormal phonation

15

What are causes of VPD?

VPInsufficiency (anatomy - structure)
VPIncompetence (physiology - mvmt)
VP mislearning

16

What causes VPInsufficiency?

Cleft palate
Short velum
Deep pharynx (cranial base anomalies)
Adenoid atrophy or irregularity or adenoidectomy
Hypertrophic tonsils or tonsillectomy (rare)
Teeth malocclusion (Class III) - underbite
Oral cavity tumor

17

What causes VPIncompetence?

Abnormal m. insertion
Hypotonia/poor pharyngeal wall mvmt
Dysarthria, apraxia, neurom. disorders
CN defects ( Unilateral velar paralysis/paresis)
Velar fatigue

18

What causes VP misleading?

Faulty artic
Bad speech habits
Hearing loss