Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Introduction Deck (27)
Walter 2003 said what about the Iberian Lynx?
'For centuries... the lynx... cohabited perfectly easily with the people of southern Portugal and Spain; it’s behaviour evolved to the way people farmed. But now everything had changed. It is being threatened in the most dramatic way by human behaviour & land use. Here we can see in one of the clearest confrontations between conservationists & everyday modern life.
Where are the Iberian Lynx found?
Spain and Portugal to the south
What is their (Iberian lynx) habitat?
Scrub / scattered open areas
How many Iberian lynx left roughly?
Why are the Iberian lynx going extinct?
- farming changes / agriculture
- road building between the 2 countries
- other development eg. Reservoirs for fresh water
How can we save the species of the Iberian Lynx
Captive breeding programme
Sustaining places of habitat & prey
Why isn’t the captive breeding programme the best way?
Not always successful
E.g. google headlines 'captive-bred Iberian lynx found dead hours after release'
Sustaining places of habitat and prey... how do we do this?
Politics —> protected areas (EU habitats Directive)
Protest (SOS lynx campaign)
Consumption choices -> cork trees replaced by eucalyptus & fruit
Culture —> valuing land - managing traditional land uses
Resource use —> water (reservoirs for irrigation of crops & tourism)
Development —> new sustainable uses e.g. using cork for insulation and flooring - opportunity to promote traditional cork trees
Reintroductions —> (France or UK) (controversial - debated)
Survival is an issue of many things...
Biology (how well developed the species is) - ecology (how they fit into the environment) - choices - places - futures - environments (global warming - if places become too dry species won’t survive) - human behaviour - economics (sustainability VERY expensive) - politics...
When & how did humanity first see the Earth from space and realise it’s vulnerability?
1972 blue marble image (Apollo 17)
Sustainability is different to sustainable development...
what did Adams, 2005 say?
'Irritatingly, it can mean everything and nothing'
What’s the definition of sustainability?
The long-term continuity of that which is valued, maintaining the best of what is there but allowing, even promoting, change
What is ecology?
'An approach to the study of living things that emphasises their complex & dynamic interrelationships with each other & the non-living environment'
What are the 3 legs of the 3 legged stool?
Kuhlman & Farrington (2010) focus on three aspects:
1. Obscures tension between social welfare aims & environmental conservation
2. Risks diminishing importance of economic dimension (ecology)
3. Falsely separates social from economic (these 2 closely linked together)
Sustainable development foregrounded in what report?
Brundtland Report - our common future (1987)
What’s the definition of sustainable development?
'Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'
post-1960s realisation of what?
Threats to planet & human survival - rise in concerns of the environment
1972: UN conference on the Human Environment -significant world leaders meeting
1980: world conservation strategy
1986: world commission on environment & development (Brundtland 87)
1992: UN conference on environment & development (Rio Earth summit)
- 128 heads of state
- 178 governments
- NGOs (friends of the Earth / greenpeace)
Output —> Rio Declaration
'Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy & productive life in harmony with nature'
Non-binding, voluntary action for global sustainable development
(Voluntary action = not one blanket rule... different policies for different countries)
2002: UN world sustainable development summit, Johannesburg
2015: Paris Agreement —> starts when 55+ countries producing more than 55% global greenhouse emissions ratify (agree)
For the Paris agreement, when were the targets of 55+ countries with 55%+ global GHG emissions reached?
What should these countries now do?
China & USA now agreed
They should now set targets for emission reduction or limitation
IPCC 1988 how many members?
Trump problems with Paris agreement...
2017 wanted to pull out but illegal to do so until 2020
Government of Wales act 2006: constitutional duty to improve sustainable development
Waste recycling targets e.t.c
Swansea council will only collect 3 black general waste bags per fortnight