Lecture 3 - Chiapas in Rebellion Flashcards Preview

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What does NAFTA stand for?

North American Free Trade Agreement


What date did the Chiapas rebellion take place and why?

January 1st 1994 (new years day)
Not as many police on duty


How many guerrillas took part in the uprising?
What area did it focus on?

Focused on city of SAN Cristóbal de las Casas (popular tourist site in southern Mexico)


The uprise made world news headlines because -

Mexico is considered the most stable in southern Mexico - not the sort of place it would happen


Roots of rebellion - sub-regions

Pacific lowlands
Central plateau
Lacandón Jungle (rainforest)


Roots of the rebellion -
Who was displaced?

Mayans displaced by Ladinos - powerful
Pushed to plateau from the lowlands and then into the jungle


1950s onwards

Chiapas poor migration to the jungle left them landless


How many days of fighting on Chiapas uprising?

12 days then ceasefire was called and peace talks began


NAFTA included cancellation of article 27 of Mexico’s constitution

Article 27 —> native communal landholdings were protected from sale or privatisation


How did the native farmers feel about the removal of article 27?

Feared loss of their remaining lands and feared cheap imports from the US


What did they do during attacks?

Attacked civic centres eg city halls and barricaded themselves in


Parsons 1995 on the Chiapas uprising

'While chaipas, in our opinion, does not pose a fundamental threat to Mexican political stability, it is perceived to be so by many in the investment community.'
'The government will need to eliminate the Zapatistas to demonstrate their effective control of the national territory and security policy.'


Losers of chaipas rebellion / NAFTA Agreement

General purchasing power plummeted (along with wages)
1994, 50% malnutrition
Ecological problems - ex-oil workers made redundant
Technology - machinery was too heavy for the plateau
Soil erosion - large machinery


Marcos 1994

'The government really screwed us, now that they have destroyed article 27, for which Zapata... fought... we and our families have been sold down the river... we did everything legal that we could... and to no avail'


Zapatista Manifesto for Change
Who was key spokesman?

Man of mystery - always wore a ski mask - gave all speeches (symbolism for 'every man/woman)


EZLN proposed laws:

Equal rights for both genders
Urban reform - keeping rent affordable
Regulate 'free-trade' - more control over economy


After the uprising what happened?

National sympathy and international attention
Bombing in San Cristóbal - lots of damage


Official response - sustainable rural cities project 2007

State-planned new towns
Peasant communities being concentrated
Stated aim- integration into national state and global economy


Calderón 2008 on sustainable rural cities project

Will allow 'families to establish themselves in a secure place, in a planned city with services, with drinking water, a city with school and health centres, that will have a true sense of community'


Vergara-Camus 2009 reiterating 'land' social movements push for sustainability:

'Land is a way to regain some degree of autonomy from the cold functioning of the market'