Cranial treatments in infants and children are highly useful for what 3 underlying problems?
- Poor suckle
- Infant constipation
- Birth "trauma" --> vomiting, excessive crying, poor suck, etc..
2 cranial techniques to use in infants and children?
- Condylar decompression
- Balanced membranous tension
What is a common cause of cranial dysfunctions in infants; which bone is most susceptible to dysfunction?
- Birth trauma; can be "normal" or "traumatic" delivery
- Occiput is cranial bone most susceptible
An infant with "poor suck" most likely has a cranial dysfunction of which bone and which CN's are affected?
- CN XII and IX
An infant with reflux, vomiting, and/or colic most likely has a cranial dysfunction of which bone and which CN is affected?
- CN X
An infant with colic and muscular dysfunction most likely has a cranial dysfunction of which bone and which CN is affected?
- CN XI
Which cranial bone when dysfuncitonal affects the most CN's?
Which cranial dysfunction in infants increases the likelihood of otitis media?
IR temporal bone
An operative vaginal delivery (forceps, vacuum) may cause dysfunction in which 2 CN's and what does dysfunction in each of these nerves lead to?
- CN VI --> lateral rectus palsy
- CN VII --> facial palsy
Which osteopathic tx is relatvely contraindicated in anyone with hypermobile joints?
What are the spinal curvatures like in an infant?
- C-spine has slight lordosis, which increases as baby can support his/her head
- Thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis has yet to develop
Most joints/articulations in an infant are composed of what?
Which types of OMT treatments are preferred for infants?
Which type of OMT should be done to the diaphragms and junctions of an infant?
What are some of the common dysfunctions that may arise in school-age children due to the rapid growth + epiphyseal plates still being open?
- "Growing pains"
- May develop leg length discrepance during this period
- Short leg syndrome
- Functional scoliosis
Adolescent athletes are particularly susceptible to SD and you should watch for what?
During what stage of childhood do the innominates and sacrum fuse?
- Innominates by age 20
- Sacrum fuses in late adolescence
An infant presents with poor suckle/feeding, what would be a good cranial technique you could use to treat?
A pediatric patient presents with GERD, which OMT modality would be good to use and what viscerosomatics would you target?
- Cranial may be helpful
- Viscerosomatics - OA, AA, T5-T9
What are some OMT techniques which would be helpful in treating a pediatric patient with constipation?
- Tx dysfunction at viscerosomatic levels (upper and lower GI; sympathetic and parasympathetics)
- Also tx any pelvic (innominate/sacral) dysf.
- Mesenteric release
Which parasympathetics should be targeted for respiratory complaints?
- Nose: facial n. (CN VII)
- OA and AA - vagus n.
What are 3 lymphatic techniques that could be used for otitis media in a pediatric patient?
- Ear pull
- Muncie technique