What year was the Osteopathic Cranial Academy established by students of Dr. Sutherland?
What year was Dr. Sutherland's work first published in the JAOA?
What are the 5 components of the Primary Respiratory Mechanism (PRM)?
1. The inherent mobility of the brain and spinal cord
2. The fluctuation of the CSF
3. The mobility of the intracranial and intraspinal membranes
4. The articulatory mobility of the cranial bones
5. The involuntary mobility of the sacrum between the ilia
The inherent mobility of the brain/SC as one of the components of PRM/OCMM is due to what 2 factors?
Which can be measured?
1. Traube-Hering Wave due to changes in blood flow velocity and is measureable by laser flowmetery
2. Glial cells contribute to neurovascular coupling and regulate flow in the brain
What is the normal range of the CRI?
The CRI is separate from which physiologic mechanisms?
What is the "Sutherland Fulcrum"?
A point of function generally located in the region of the straight sinus (junction of the Falx and Tentoria)
The Reciprocal Tension Membrane (RTM) is created by what 3 components?
- Falx Cerebri
Reciprocal Tension Membrane (RTM) attaches to the bones of the vault and base, holding them under?
Does the RTM allow for motion?
Allows BUT limits motion
What is the Anterior/Superior pole of attachment for the RTM?
What is the Anterior/Inferior pole of attachment for the RTM?
Clinoid processes of Sphenoid
What is the Lateral pole of attachment for the RTM?
Mastoid angles of parietals AND petrous ridges of temporal bones
What is the Posterior pole of attachment for the RTM?
Internal occipital protuberance AND transverse ridges
What are the 2 most important components of the PRM?
1) The inherent mobility of the brain and spinal cord
2) Fascial mobility and continuity significantly impacts the RPM
The SBS is where the basisphenoid and basiocciput join to form a what?
SBS extension is paired with which phase of respiration?
SBS Extension = Exhalation
Foramen associated with CN I (Olfactory)?
Foramina of Cribiform plate
Foramen associated with CN II (Optic)?
Which foramina is associated with V1, V2, and V3 of CN V (Trigeminal)?
- V1 (opthalmic) = superior orbital fissure
- V2 (maxillary) = foramen rotundum
- V3 (mandibular) = foramen ovale
Which 4 CN's exit the Superior Orbital Fissure?
- Oculomotor (CN III)
- Trochlear (CN IV)
- Opthalmic (V1)
- Abducens (CN VI)
Which 3 foramina are associated with CN VII (Facial)?
1) Internal Acoustin Meatus
2) Facial Canal
3) Stylomastoid Foramen
Foramen associated with CN VIII (Vestibulocochlear)?
Internal Acoustic Meatus
The inherent sacral motion and the core link are due to dural attachements where?
- Foramen magnum
- Posterior body and disc of S2 in the spinal canal
At which sacral level is the Inferior Trasnsverse (Pelvic/Ilial) Axis of the Sacrum?
Represents the axis for what movement?
- Axis for movement of the ilia on the sacrum
The Superior Transverse Axis of the Sacrum is at what sacral level?
Associated with the motion of what?
- Respiratory motion
In summary, what did Moskalenko's research describe?
Interaction btw intracranial hemodynamics and CSF circulation
Which foramen does CN IX (glossopharyngeal), CN X (Vagus) and CN XI (accessory) exit?
What are the 5 characteristics/qualities of the CRI?
1. Rate - usually 10-14 bpm
2. Rhythm - usually palpated like the "tide of the ocean"
3. Amplitude - diminished by SD
4. Strength - diminished by SD
5. Direction - is longitudinal and symmetric in healthy pt
Which 2 systems interface with each other during normal functioning and in times/conditions of disease?
1. Nervous system
2. Fluid dynamics