Flashcards in Lecture 1 (Quiz 1) - Exam I Deck (26):
What is an example of an Inhibitory molecule of neuron signal transmission? What about excitatory? What do both?
- Inhibit: GABA
- Excitatory: Glutamate
- Both: Acetylcholine and Serotonin
There are two types of Neurotransmitters (Direct, and Indirect), what make them different? (How they work and quickness of effect)
- Binds to and opens Ion channels.
- Causes a rapid response.
- Acts though Second Messengers (usually G Protein pathways)
- Broader and longer-lasting effects.
There are two types of Membrane Channels (Voltage-Gated and Ligand-Gated/Ionotropic), what makes them different and what are examples?
Voltage-Gated: Opens/closes in response to voltage changes (Na+ channels and Lidocaine)
- Hormone, Drug, or Transmitter that binds to a protein and causes a channel to open. (Glutamate, Acetylcholine)
There are two types of Receptors (Ionotropic/Ligand-Gated and Metabotropic), what makes them different? (type, speed and examples/Types)
- Linked to ion channels and concentrations.
- Action is brief and immediate (can be excitatory or inhibitory)
- Examples: Glutamate, GABA, ACh
- Biochemical process using second messengers (G-Protein) that modifies the responsiveness of the neuron.
- Long-term effects
- Two Types:
1. Membrane-Delimited: Occur in plane of membrane with G proteins (Ca++ inhibit channel/presynaptic, K+ activate channel/postsynaptic)
2. Diffusible Second Messengers: B-Receptors and cAMP.
What is a receptor through which a neuron's own neurotransmitter can influence the function of the terminal (usually inhibitory)? What is a receptor found on an axon terminal through which neurotransmitters from other neuronal types can influence the function of the terminal?
- Autoreceptor (D2 Receptors)
What is a class of aromatic amines (ring with 2 OH groups) that includes a number of neurotransmitters? What are three types of Catecholamines? What types of drugs contain catecholamines?
- Dopamine, Norepinephrine and Epinephrine.
- Substance abuse drugs, cardiovascular drugs (BP modifiers), Parkinson's Disease drugs.
How do you make Dopamine? *(Pic 10)
What transporter is used to get dopamine into the vesicle? What are the name of the Autoreceptors that Dopamine attach to and what does this cause? Dopamine also is broken down (metabolized), how is this done? *(Pic 11)
- Vesicular Monoamine Transporter (VMAT)
- D2 Receptors, Decrease Tyrosine Activity which Decrease Dopamine Release.
- Uses a Dopamine Transporter and is metabolized by Monomine Oxidose.
How do you make Norepinephrine? *(Pic)
How does Dopamine become Norepinephrine within the vesicle? Norepinephrine can also bind to an autoreceptor, what is it called? It can also be metabolized using a transporter called what and enzyme called what? *(Pic)
- Uses Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase
- Alpha-2 Receptor
- Norepinephrine Transporter and Monomine Oxidose
Dopamine and Norepinephrine are usually found in CNS neurons, where is Epinephrine found? What enzyme catalyzes the conversion of Norepinephrine to Epinephrine? *(PIC)
- Medullary Cells
- PNMT enzyme (Phenylethanolamine-N-MethylTransferase)
What is a molecule that looks like a Catecholamine but has an extra penta-ring on it?
- Serotonin (NOT a Catecholamine!)
How do you make Serotonin? *(PIC)
What transporter does Serotonin (5HT) use to enter the vesicle?Serotonin can bind to an autoreceptor (Autoreceptors usually halt production), it can also be metabolized using what two things? *(Pic)
- Vesicular Monoamine Transporter (VMAT)
- Transported by a Serotonin Transporter and is metabolized by Monomine Oxidose.
What does DOPA stand for?
How do you make Acetylcholine? *(Pic)
What is used to make Choline into Acetylcholine? What transporter is used to get Acetylcholine into a vesicle? What is needed to metabolize Acetylcholine (enzyme and transporter)? What is the autoreceptor needed for autoreception of ACh?
- Choline Acetyl Transferase
- Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter
- Acetylcholinesterase, Choline Transporter
- Presynaptic Muscarinic Receptors
There are two very important Amino Acids that are mainly used to react with drugs (Inhibitory or excitatory), what are they?
- GABA: Inhibitory
- Glutamate: Excitatory
How do you make Glutamate? *(PIC)
In order for Alpha-Keto Glutarate to become Glutamate, what is used? What is used to transport Glutamate into the vesicle? Glutamate once released can attach post-synaptically to what 3 receptors? Glutamate once released can enter what in order to become Glutamine, and what enzyme is used to do this? What enzyme is used to turn Glutamine to Glutamate? What transporter is used to metabolize Glutamate?
- Vesicular Glutamate Transporter
- AMPA, NMDA and Kainate.
- Astrocytes, Glutamine Synthetase
- Glutamate Transporter
How do you make GABA? *(PIC)
What is used to make Glutamate into GABA? GABA once released can enter into an Astrocyte to form what?
- Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD)
What makes Histamine (H1-3) receptors unique?
- It is an Inhibitory receptor that decreases the release of ACh, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Serotonin.
What makes Endorphins (Opioid Receptors) unique?
- When morphine binds to these receptors it decreases GABA release which increases Dopamine Release.
How is Nitric Oxide able to relax the vasculature of smooth muscle?
- It is a gaseous signaling molecule that can diffuse through membranes.