Flashcards in Lecture 12 (Quiz 3) - Exam 2 Deck (19):
What is the largest cause of death in the US?
- Heart Disease
What is an increase in cell size and examples of each? What is cell shrinkage or loss? What is the atrophy of fatty tissue that often leads to death if 68% of normal body weight? What is an increase in cell number? What is the replacement of one cell by another type? What is disordered hyperplasia without maturation? What is this called when it is at risk of developing a tumor?
- Hypertrophy (Cardiac)
- Atrophy (Brain in dementia patient)
- Cachexia (Decrease in fat cells)
- Hyperplasia (Prostate)
- Metaplasia (Smoker's airways)
- Dysplasia (Bowel's Disease)
What are causes of cell injury or death?
- Trauma, Ischemia (inadequate circulation), Toxins/Radiation, Infection, Inflammation, Genetic diseases, Nutrition and Tumors.
Which cells are the most prone to injury?
- High metabolic activity (Cardiac, renal, hepatocytes)
- Rapidly proliferating (Testicular, intestinal, hematopoietic)
There are two degrees of cell injury (reversible and irreversible) what makes them different?
- Damage not enough to kill the cell (severe exercise)
- Irreversible: Cell Death
- Necrosis (uncontrolled), Apoptosis (programmed cell death) (Holes in cell membrane, Ca2+ influx, mitochondrial loss.)
What is the loss of ATP from anaerobic glycolysis with acidosis and can cause cell swelling due to the loss of the Na pumps?
What is orderly, energy-requiring cell death, that does NOT cause inflammation and is usually one cell at a time?
What is uncoordinated cell death where there is some sort of membrane disruption and energy loss at early stages. Often happens in clusters of cells rather than individual cells, and incites acute inflammation and swelling of cells?
During cell death, the nucleus undergoes changes. What is it when the nucleus is digested and pale? When the nucleus is shriveled and dark? When the nucleus is fragmented?
- Nuclear Pyknosis
What are degraded lipid in lysosomes? What is a hemoglobin breakdown product? What is iron containing pigment? What is it called when there is too much bilirubin?
- Jaundice (Icterus)
What two problems are caused by intracellular protein storage??? What problem is caused by extracellular protein storage???
- α-1-antitrypsin deficiency
- Russell bodies in plasma cells (large deposits of immunoglobulin)
- Amyloid (B-pleated sheets, occurs in many diseases such as the lungs)
What is carbon pigment that is harmless but other harmful materials can be deposited
with it and mostly seen in the lungs? What type of calcification is seen in damaged tissues? Normal tissues?
- Dystrophic Calcification (Disorder of calcium metabolism)
- Metastatic Calcification (Disorder of calcium metabolism)
What is too much extravascular fluid in tissues? What is massive peritoneal space fluid in a liver failure patient? What is too much fluid in body cavity? There are three examples of this (Ascites, Pleural effusion, and Hydrocephalus), what makes them different? What are clots or other material block flow and stay in one spot? What is low blood pressure from low cardiac output or low vascular resistance? What is high blood pressure or from high cardiac output or high vascular resistance? What is a blood clot that comes lose and moves to another part of the body causing blockage?
- Edema (Pulmonary, Dependent)
- Ascites (excess fluid in peritoneal space).
- Pleural effusion (excess fluid in pleural space).
- Hydrocephalus (excess cerebrospinal fluid).
- Hypotension or Shock
What are three common causes for Hypotension/Shock?
- Septic shock (overwhelming infection). Vasodilation & high permeability, poor cardiac pumping, increased metabolism, & more.
- Cardiogenic (heart infarct or failure, arrhythmia, pulmonary emboli). Patient has pale, cool skin. Blood flows mainly to vital organs.
- Hypovolemic (low blood volume, from bleeding or dehydration). Patient has pale, cool skin. Blood flows mainly to vital organs. Good prognosis if promptly treated.
What is when the cardiac output insufficient for metabolic needs of the body? There are two types of dysfunction involved with this (systolic and diastolic), what makes them different?
- Congestive Heart Failure
- Systolic dysfunction: Decreased myocardial
contractility (heart pumps weakly)
- Diastolic dysfunction: Insufficient expansion
(heart does not fill with blood between beats)
What is increased end diastolic volume
results in increased stroke volume? What are the side effects of Left-Side Heart failure?
- Ischemic heart disease, Hypertension, Aortic and mitral valve disease, Myocardial disease such as cardiomyopathy or myocarditis.
What is breathlessness? What is dyspnea while lying down, is due to vascular congestion and develops quickly (~1-2 minutes)? What is extreme dyspnea, develops over a few hours, and is lying down due to pulmonary edema from heart failure while?
- Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
What is a consequence of Left Sided Heart Failure? What does Right Sided Heart Failure cause in the liver, spleen, kidneys, subcutaneous, pleural space, brain and portal vein?
- Right Failure of Heart
- Liver – chronic passive congestion • Spleen – congestive splenomegaly • Kidneys – congestion and hypoxia • Subcutaneous – peripheral edema and anasarca • Pleural space – effusions • Brain – venous congestion and hypoxia • Portal - ascites