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What is drug release?

the process by which the drug leaves a drug product and is subjected to absorption


What is drug release also achieved by?



what controlls drug release?

the physicochemical properties of the drug, delivery system, biological system and physiological properties of the biological system
E.g. PH of the stomach different from intestine, the Physical properties of some places are not idea for absorption


What is the process of drug release?

the drug first has to go from the solid state to the solution and then the drug molecules can diffuse out.
For some liquid drugs, dissolution is not necessary but it still has to diffuse out from the matrix


What happens to the flux if the concentration gradient is bigger?

the flux is also bigger


what direction does diffusion occur in?

from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration


Why do we have many different dosage forms?

we cant directly give the drug powder to the patient as we have to make it useful and easy for the patient to take


what are some of the dosage forms we have for drugs?

tablets, capsules, solutions, injections etc


what is a dosage form made up of mainly?

the active ingredient + excipients/additives


what are exicipients/additives?

the inactive ingredients. e.g. polymers


What do we have to consider when making the dosage form?



what are the essential properties of a medicine?



What do we need to consider when DESIGNING a dosage form?

Portal of drug entry
Physical form of drug product
Design and formulation of product
Method of manufacture: scale up
Various physicochemical properties of drug and excipients
Control and maintenance of the drug product at the target site e.g. Targeting to the colon, bio adhesive

All of this relies on the control of drug release


Why is modified drug release used?

It allows a controlled administration of the dose at a desired rate of delivery

we can keep drug concentration in the plasma for longer, and it will be safer as it will achieve an optimal concentration

we can alter the half life so the drug doesnt have to be taken as much

It may also reduce adverse effects

can also lead to enhancement of patient compliance


What are some issues with unmodified released drugs?

if it is quickly released, might cause a problem if it overshoots the required concentration for therapeutic benefit

may also have a short half life


What are the different types of modified release dosage?

delayed release
repeat action
prolonged release
sustained release
extended release
controlled release


What is delayed release?

drug released after a lapse of time and not immediately. E.g. If the drug should not be exposed to acid. We want a delay in the release so that it has passed through the stomach so the environment is not as acidic


What is repeat action release?

Individual dose is released as soon as drug is administered and subsequent doses released and intermittent intervals


What is prolonged release?

Drug is provided for absorption over a long period of time


What is sustained release?

Initial release is sufficient to produce a therapeutic response and then the blood levels maintained by slow release over a period.


What is extended release?

Drug is released slowly so that plasma concentrations are maintained over a prolonged period of time


What is controlled release?

drug release is designed at a constant rate to provide plasma concentrations which do not vary with time.


what makes up the largest portion of the pharmaceutical industry?

controlled release societ


Why are polymers used?

Polymers can be used to form a matrix and embed a drug.
This allows us to modify the drug release as desired
We can provide enteric coatings of the drug
It allows us to achieve a targeting deliver


How do we control drug release?

layers and heights of polymers


What can we design the polymer to do?

We can design the polymer so they are pH sensitive so they can release the drug when the pH changes


What is the basis of our use for polymers?


We use the polymer to control the release by controlling the drug diffusion.
Remember you can change the diffusion rate by changing viscosity

We can also encapsulate the drug capsules by using a polymer. (Enteric coatings)
The capsule is a membrane which controls the diffusion rate so that the drug is released by control


How are polymers chosen?

First we consider the molecular weight, if its bigger, the viscosity will be bigger

Polymers are also normally crosslinked. The bigger the degree of cross linking, the slower the diffusion

Whether the polymer is in crystal form or not also places a small effect


Describe the structure of an osmotic pump

The outside is coated with a drug. When this layer is explosed to water or liquid it causes the drug to give immediate release so the drug is readily absorbed

inside there is a similar layer which is semipermeable, this allows water to enter the tablet's core

Once water gets in the NaCl gets dissolved, causing the volume to increase.
Once the pressure reaches the threshold, this will start to be pumped out.
By controlling the size of osmotically active concentration, we can control the release


What is a homogenous matrix?

matrix made from polymer which allows the drug to be diluted equally from all directions