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Dr. Biel Final Study Guide > Lecture 15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 15 Deck (22):
1

Focal damage to the cerebral cortex causes?

Aphasia

2

What are some of the common causes of occlusive strokes? (blocking blood flow through an artery)

-arteriosclerosis (thickening or hardening of the arterial wall)
-thrombus (accumalation of blood platelets on the arterial wall)
-embloism (blockage of an artery by an arterial embolus)

3

What are some of the common causes of hemorrhage strokes? (rupture of a vessel in the brain)

-aneurysm (dilated blood vessel)
-arteriovenous malformation (AVM- an abnormal connection between veins and arteries)

4

Lesions in the frontal operculum extending to subcortical white matter and adjacent cortical regions of the frontal lobe lead to what kind of aphasia?

Broca's Aphasia

5

Lesions in the posterior superior temporal gyrus including wernicke's area and damage to the supramearginal and angular gyrus are also seen in individuals with what kind of aphasia?

Wernicke's aphasia

6

Lesions in the arcuate fasciculus, supra marginal gyrus and inferior parietal cortex and posterior superior temporal gyrus lead to what kind of aphasia?

Conduction Aphasia

7

Lesions involving most of the perisylvian language zone lead to what kind of aphasia?

Global Aphasia

8

Lesions just outside or at the border of the perisylvian language zones and distribution of the middle cerebral artery lead to what kind of aphasia?

Transcortical Aphasia

9

Lesions in the angular gyrus lead to what kind of aphasia?

Anomic Aphasia

10

Isolated lesions in the thalamic and basal ganglia regions can lead to what kind of aphasia?

Subcortical aphasia, but it is uncommon

11

Aphasia can occasionally be due to lesions in the ________ or the ______ ______.

Thalamus or the Basal Ganglia

12

Alexia without agraphia comes from a _____ stroke involving the left dominant occipital lobe and splenium.

PCA (Posterior Cerebral Artery)

13

Alexia with agraphia is due to lesions in the dominant inferior _______ lobe, usually involving the angular gyrus.

Parietal

14

Right hemisphere communication impairments appear to be _________ to damage to regions of the right hemisphere responsbile for other cognitive functions, such as attention.

secondary

15

What kind of damage leads to dementia?

Cortical or subcortical damage

16

What are the 3 types of primary progressive aphasia?

-Nonfluent Progressive Aphasia
-Semantic Dementia
-Logopenic Dementia

17

Nonfluent Progressive Aphasia's location of degeneration

Left posterior fronto-insular region

18

Semantic Dementia's location of degeneration

anterior temporal lobes, predominantly on the left

19

Logopenic aphasia's location of degeneration

left temporo-parietal junction area

20

NFPA is a ________ aphasia, like Broca's aphasia.

nonfluent

21

SD is a ______ aphasia characterized by a loss of semantic memory.

Fluent

22

LPA is between NFPA and SD in fluency and is characterized by a _______ in short term _________ memory.

reduction; phonological