Lecture 16 - Hippocampus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16 - Hippocampus Deck (16):
1

Procedural Memory

spared in amnesia
- memory embedded in procedures or changes pre-existing cognitive operations

2

Declarative Memory

impared in amnesia
-information is explicit --> brought to mind as proposition or image
EX: facts, lists, everyday remembering

3

Working Memory

task-relevant information
like a "scratch-pad"
buffering capacity against distractions

4

Associative learning

process of forming associations between stimuli and responses
-pavlovian
-operant

5

Non-associative learning

simpler learning of behavioral response with repeated presentations of stimulus
-habituation (startle reflex --> same stim decrease reaction)
-sensitization (startle reflex --> same stim increase reaction)

6

Pavlovian (classical) Conditioning

Associate 2 unrelated stimuli together
-form association that didn't previously exist (bell&salivation)
-neutral stimuli, upon ***temporal*** association with reflex-eliciting stimulus, gains ability to elicit reflex response
-non-related stimulus has to come BEFORE related stimulus

7

Operant Conditioning

Associate action and outcome
-consequence contingent on behavior

8

Positive reinforcement

keep something good happening
-consequence keeps behavior repeating

9

Punishment

don't do behavior anymore
-consequence reduces probability of behavior

10

Negative reinforcement

stop something bad
-consequence removes unpleasant stimulus
-rats press lever in order to turn off aversive noise

11

Plasticity

experience-induced changes in molecular processes and network organization of the brain, induced by exposure to salient stimuli (habituation/sensitization), stimulus-stimulus associations (classical conditioning), or action-outcome contingencies (operant conditioning)

12

Hippocampus

acquires info about relationships among stimuli
-identify and remember multiple spatial locations (spatial memory and navigation - Place cells)
-embedded in entorhinal cortex (banana)
-input from many subcortical inputs, including striatum
> Ventral tegmental area - dopamine
> Raphe nuclei - serotonin
> Locus Coeruleus - NE ***Arousal important for activity

13

Amygdala

mediate formation of behaviors based on association of neutral stimuli with biologically significant events that elicit emotional reaction (Pavlovian memory system)
-main neural site mediating fear responses (threatening)
-3 groupings
1. basolateral complex - cortical-like
2. central nuclei - striatum like (autonomic)
3. cortical and medial nuclei - part of olfactory (direct access to amygdala without any processing

14

Dorsal Striatum

mediates formation of reinforced stimulus-response associations (operant, associative learning system where neutral stimuli elicit motor response)

15

Entorhinal cortex

C shaped structure that hippocampus is embedded in
-important for input and output of information
-fornix carries info from hippocampus out to basal forebrain

16

Hippocampus-to-cortex transfer

really long term memory stored in neocortex itself
-diff cellular mechanisms for short-term (labile) & long-term (permanent) memory --> long-term requires protein synthesis, achieved thru MAP-kinase
-cellular expression of proteins that stabilize synapses
-feedback loop to come back and reactivate kinases continuously (positive feedback) keep long-term memories in place