Lecture 18 - Introduction to Protein Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 18 - Introduction to Protein Metabolism Deck (10)
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What are 3 causes of a positive nitrogen balance?

1. Growth
2. Pregnancy
3. Lactation


What are 3 causes of a negative nitrogen balance?

1. low dietary protein
2. deficiency of essential AA
3. metabolic stress, sepsis, or trauma


What are three "ultimate fates" of dietary amino acids in healthy adults?

1. Incorporated into new proteins (specialized products)
2. Broken down and nitrogen excreted as urea (nitrogenous waste)
3. Used for fuel (energy)


__________ amino acids are synthesized in the body and not required in the diet.



What are two properties of dietary proteins that determine their biological value?

1. Digestibility
2. Content of essential amino acids


When large amounts of proteins are ingested, small amounts of amino acids are retained to replace the AAs lost through irreversible pathways.

The rest is excreted into urine as _____ & _______.

urea and ammonia


Chronic excess protein can lead to increased _________.

urinary loss of calcium, an osteoporosis


Inadequate protein intake causes negative nitrogen balance, edema, and reduced serum ______.



Excess protein can cause an increased workload for what organ in particular?

Kidneys - due to N/S/P molecule filtration (hyperfiltration - a problem in people with renal issues)


Obligatory nitrogen losses from the body include urea from alanine and glutamine in breakdown of _________.

muscle protein