Lecture 22 - Folate, B12, and Non-Essential Amino Acids Flashcards Preview

Fuel Metabolism - 2016 > Lecture 22 - Folate, B12, and Non-Essential Amino Acids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 22 - Folate, B12, and Non-Essential Amino Acids Deck (24)
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1

Name 3 carriers of one-carbon units.

1. THF
2. Formic acid
3. SAM

2

Biotin carries the carboxylate group, which is the _________ oxidized carbon.

A. Most
B. Least

A

3

SAM carries the _________ type of carbons.

A. Most reduced
B. Most oxidized
C. Neither A or B

A

4

What are 3 biosynthetic pathways that require one carbon units?

A. Synthesis of non-essential amino acids
B. Synthesis of purines
C. Synthesis of pyrimidines

5

SAM is involved in the synthesis of which of the following molecules?

A. Creatine
B. Carnitine
C. Epinephrine
D. Methylated DNA and RNA
E. All of the above

E

6

What is "SAM" the "preferred carrier" of?

Activated methyl carrier

7

9 of 11 of the non-essential AAs are synthesized form intermediates in __________ or ________.

1. glycolysis
2. TCA cycle

8

___________ is the process of an amino group changing to a ketoacid.

Transamination

9

Enzymates that catalyze the formation of an amide bond are usually called:

synthetases

10

Glutamate can form what 3 amino acids?

1. Proline
2. Arginine
3. Glutamine

11

Which glycolytic intermediate forms alanine, a non-essential amino acid?

Pyruvate

12

Name 2 non-essential amino acids are synthesized from essential amino acids.

1. Tyrosine
2. Cysteine

13

Cysteine is formed from _________.

methionine

14

Tyrosine is formed from __________.

phenylalanine

15

Maternal PKU is caused by damage to fetus by ___________.

maternal phenylketones (formed when tyrosine can't be synthesized)

16

Classical PKU presents with a deficiency in ___________.

Phenylalanine hydroxylase

17

If untreated, all 3 PKU lead to severe mental retardation. This is due to decreased transport of ______ and __________ across the blood brain barrier.

1. tyrosine
2. tryptophan

18

What are the consequences of a folic acid deficiency?

Inability to carry all one-carbon groups (except methyl); impaired synthesis of compounds that requrie one-carbon units

19

What two reactions in humans require Vitamin B12?

1. Conversion of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA in BCAA metabolism
2. Remethylation of SAM requires Vitamin B12

20

How does a B12 deficiency result in secondary folate deficiency?

B12 required for conversion of 5-Methyl-THF to THF; so without B12, 5-Methyl-THF builds up and you don't have any usable folate.

21

_________ is is an amino acid whose plasma concentration is an indicator of functional small intestinal masses.

Citrulline

22

Homocysteine can be used to regenerate ______, an essential amino acid.

methionine

23

Homocysteine can be used to synthesize ______, a non-essential amino acid.

cysteine

24

Taurine can be made from _____.

cysteine