Lecture 18: The Cardiavascular System Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 18: The Cardiavascular System Part 1 Deck (12):
1

Pericardium. What are the 3 layers of the pericardium? What is each of their functions?

Superficial fibrous pericardium
-protects, anchors, and prevents overfilling
Deep two-layered serous pericardium
-parietal layer- lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium
-visceral layer- (epicardium) on external surface of the heart
-separated by fluid-filled pericardial cavity (decreases friction)
Refer to slide 7 for picture

2

What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?

1. Epicardium-visceral layer of the serous pericardium
2. Myocardium
-spiral bundles of cardiac muscle cells
-fibrous skeleton of the heart: crisscrossing, interlacing layer of connective tissue
-anchors cardiac muscle fibres
-supports great muscles and valves
-limits spread of action potentials to specific paths
3. Endocardium
-is continuous with the endothelial lining of blood vessels

Be able to label it!

3

Chambers

Two atria:
-separated internally by the interatrial septum
-coronary sulcus (atrioventricular groove) encircles the junction if the atria and ventricles
-auricles increase atrial volume
Two ventricles:
-separated by interventricular septum

4

Be able to label the heart on slide 11

Do it!

5

Atria: the receiving chambers
What vessels enter the right atrium?
What vessels enter the left atrium?

Right:
-superior vena cava
-inferior vena cava
-coronary sinus

Left:
-right and left pulmonary veins

6

Ventricles: the discharging chamber
What are the vessels leaving each ventricle?
What is the muscle called which projects into the ventricular cavities
Walls are rigid by?

-Walls are rigid by trabeculae carneae
-Papillary muscle projects into ventricular cavities
Vessels leaving right atrium:
Pulmonary trunk
Vessels leaving the left trunk:
Aorta

7

Pathway of blood through the heart

Right atrium-tricuspid valve-right ventricle- pulmonary semilunar valve- pulmonary trunk -pulmonary arteries-lungs-pulmonary veins-left atrium- bicuspid valve- left ventricle- aortic semilunar valve- aorta- systemic circulation

8

Equal volumes of blood are pumped to the pulmonary and systemic circuits
-pulmonary circuit is short, low pressure circulation
-anatomy of the ventricles:
Left wall is thicker

Husk

9

Coronary circulation:

Arteries
-right and left coronary (in atrioventricular groove)
Veins:
-small cardiac, anterior cardiac, and great cardiac veins

10

Be able to label the blood vessels of the heart.
Slide 23

Do it!

11

Homeostatic imbalances

Angina pectoris: thoracic pain caused by a deficiency in blood delivery to the myocardium
Myocardial infarction: (heart attack)
-prolonged coronary blockage
-areas of cell death are repaired with non contractile scar tissue

12

Heart valves:
Name them all and what are they for
What is the tendon thingo that anchors the AV valve cusps to papillary muscle?

Ensure unidirectional blood flow through heart
Atrioventricular valves:
-prevent backfow into the atria when ventricles contract
-tricuspid valve (right)
-Bicuspid valve (left)
Chordae tendinae anchor AV valve cusps to papillary muscles

Semilunar:
-prevents backfow into ventricles when ventricles relax
-aortic semilunar valve
-pulmonary semilunar valve
Lebel them slide 29