Lecture 24: Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 24: Female Reproductive System Deck (16):
1

What are the females primary sex organs and what do they do?
Name the accessory reproductive organs.
The sex hormones play roles in?

Primary sex organs (gonads): ovaries
-produce sex cells (gametes)
-secrete steroid sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone)
Accessory reproductive organs:
Ducts, glands, and external genitalia
Sex hormones play roles in:
-development and function if the reproductive organs
-sexual behaviour and drives
-growth and development of many other organs and tissues

2

What are the ovaries function?
List the accessory ducts

Ovaries: female gonads
-produce female gametes (ova)
-secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone)
Accessory ducts include:
-uterine tubes
-uterus
-vagina

3

List the internal genitalia
List the external genitalia

Internal:
-ovaries
-uterine tubes
-uterus
-vagina
External genitalia:
-the external sex organs

4

Ovaries are held in place by which ligaments?

Ovarian ligament:
-anchors ovary medially to the uterus
Suspensory ligament: anchors ovary laterally to the pelvic wall
Broad ligament: supports the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina

5

What are the ovaries blood supply?
What are they surrounded by?

Ovarian arteries
Surrounded by a fibrous tunica albuginae

6

Follicles
What are the several stages of development?

1. Primordial follicle: squamous like follicle cells + oocyte
2. Primary follicle: cuboidal or columnar follicle cells + oocyte
3. Secondary follicle: two or more layers of granulosa cells + oocyte
4. Late secondary follicle: contains fluid-filled space
5. Vesicular (Graafian) follicle
6. Ovulation: ejection of the oocyte from the ripening follicle
7. Corpus luteum: develops from ruptured follicle after ovulation

7

Female duct system
1. Uterine (Fallopian) tubes or oviducts

Uterine tubes:
Ampulla:
-distal expansion with infundibulum near ovary
-usual site of fertilisation
-ciliated fibriae of infundibulum create currents to move oocyte into uterine tube.
Isthmus: constructed region where tube joins uterus
-oocyte is carried along by peristalsis and ciliary action

8

Uterus

Body: major portion
Fundus: rounded superior region
Isthmus: narrowed inferior region
Cervix: narrow neck, or outlet; projections into the vagina
Cervical canal: between the vagina and body

9

What are the supports of the uterus?

Broad ligament-lateral support
Round ligament- bind to the anterior wall

10

What are the three layers of the uterine wall?

1. Perimetrium: serosal layer (visceral peritoneum)
2. Myometrium: interlacing layers of smooth muscle
3.endometrium: mucosal lining

11

Endometrium
Name the functional layer, and what happens with ovarian cycles
Also name the basal layer

Stratum functionalis (functional layer)
-changes in response to ovarian hormone cycles
-is shed during menstruation

Stratum basalis (basal layer)
-forms new functionalis after menstruation

12

Uterine vascular supply

Uterine arteries:
Radial branches in the endometrium branch into:
-spiral arteries (stratum functionalis)
-straight arteries (stratum basalis)
Spasm of spiral arteries leads to shedding of stratum functionalis

13

Vagina
Talk about its anatomy
Also the three layers

-Birth canal and organ of copulation
-extends between the bladder and the rectum from the cervix to the exterior
-urethra embedded in the anterior wall
Layers if wall:
1. Fibroelastic adventitia
2. Smooth muscle muscularis
3. Stratified squamous mucosa with rugae
Mucosa near the vaginal orifice forms an incomplete partition call the hymen
Vaginal fornix: upper end of vagina surrounding the cervix

14

External genitalia:

Vulva
Mons pubis: fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis
Labia majora: hair covered, fatty skin folds
Labia minora: skin folds lying within labia majora
-vestibule: recess between labia minora
Greater vestibular glands:
-homologous to the bulbourethral glands in the male
-release mucus into the vestibule for lubrication
Clitoris: erectile tissue
Perineum: diamond shaped region between the pubic arch and coccyx
-bordered by the ishial tuberosities laterally

15

Mammary glands

-Modified sweat glands consisting of 15-25 lobes
-areola: pigmented skin surrounding the nipple
-Suspensory ligaments: attach the breast to underlying muscle
-lobules within lobes contain glandular alveoli that produce milk
-milk --> lactiferous ducts --> lactiferous sinuses --> open to the outside at the nipple

16

Be able to label the diagram on slide 25

Do it!