Lecture 2: Integumentry System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2: Integumentry System Deck (11):
1

List the major layers of each and describe the functions of each layer:
1. Epidermis
babies sigh greatly like cats

1. Layers of the epidermis:
A) stratum basale: deepest epidermal layer firmly attached to the dermis
-melanocytes found here
-single row of stem cells
B) stratum spinosum (prickly layer)
-contains prekeratin filaments which gives it strength
-abundant melanin granules
C) stratum granulosum
-thin
-keratohyaline and lamellated granules accumulate
D) stratum lucindum (clear layer)
-in thick skin
-thin transparent band superficial to the stratum granulosum
-a few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes
E) stratum corneum (hornet layer)
-20-30 rows of flat keratinized membrane sacs
-makes up 3/4 of the epidermal thickness
Functions of layer 5 stratum corneum:
-protects from abrasions and penetrations
-water proofs
-barrier against biological, chemical and physical assaults

2

List the major layers of each and describe the functions of each layer:
2. Dermis

Dermis is strong flexible connective tissue
-cells include fibroblasts, macrophages, and sometimes mast cells and white blood cells
Two layers:
A) papillary layer: areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibres and blood vessels
-capillary loops
-meissners corpuscles
-free nerve endings
B) reticular layer:
-80% of the thickness of the dermis
-collagen fibres provide strength
-elastic fibres provide stretch recoil properties

Friction ridges (fingertips) are found in the dermis layer?

3

Describe the factors that contribute to skin colour

3 pigments contribute to skin colour
1. Melanin: yellow, reddish-brown to black, responsible for dark skin colors. Freckles are a accumulation of melanin
2. carotene: yellow to orange (like a carrot), most obvious in palms and soles
3. Hemoglobin: responsible for the pinkish of skin

4

Appendages of the skin
Compare the structure and locations of sweat and oil glands

Two main types of sweat glands
1. Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands
-abundant on palms, soles, and forehead
Sweat: 99% water, NaCl, vit C, antibodies, metabolic wastes
-ducts connect to pores
-function in thermoregulation

2. Apocrine sweat glands: or (sebaceous glands) confined to axillary and anogenital areas because that is we're the hair is?
-sebum: sweat + fatty substances and proteins
-ducts connect to hair follicles
-functional from puberty onwards

5

List the parts of a hair follicle and their function

Function: alerts the body to presence of insects on the skin
-guarding the scalp against physical trauma, heat loss, and sunlight
Hair consist of dead keratonized cells.
Hair pigments: Melanins (yellow, rust brown, black) grey and white hair is due to decreased melanin production and increase in air bubbles in the shaft
Hair follicle: extends from the epidermal surface into the dermis
-2 layered wall: outer connective tissue root sheath, inner epithelial root sheath
Hair bulb is the expanded deep end
Hair follicle receptorsc: sensory nerve endings around each hair bulb and is stimulated by bending hair
Arrector pili: smooth muscle attached to follicle responsible for good bumps

6

What are the two types of hair?

Vellus: pale, fine body hair of children and adult females
Terminal: coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp, axillary, and pubic regions (and face and neck of males)

7

What is the name for balding?

Alopecia: hair thinking in both sexes after age 40
True (frank) baldness: genetically determined and sex influences condition
-male pattern baldness is caused by follicular response to increases DHT (dihydrotestosterone)

8

Describe the structure of nails

Be able to label a diagram of a nail

9

Describe how the skin accomplishes at least 5 different functions


Mums body brings cute ex

1. Protection: 3 types of barriers
A) physical/ mechanical barriers
-the keratin and glycolipids block most water and water soluble substances
-limited penetration of skin by lipid soluble substances
B) biological barriers: dendritic cells, macrophages, and DNA
C) chemical: low pH secretions (acid mantle) and defensins retard bacterial activity
2. Body temperature regulation:
-at elevated temps, dilation of dermal vessel and increased sweat gland activity cool the body
3. Cutaneous sensations: temp, touch, and pain
4.metabolic functions: synthesis of vitamin D precursor and collagenase
-chemical conversions of carcinogens and some hormones
5. Blood reservoir- up to 5% of body's blood volume
6. Excretion- nitrogenous wastes and salt in sweat

10

What are the three major types of skin cancer

Mel swims
So she gets skin problems

1. Basal cell carcinoma: least malignant, most common
-stratum basal cells proliferate and slowly invade dermis and hypodermis
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: second most common
-involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
-most common on scalp, ears, lower lip, and hands
-treated by radiation therapy or removal surgically
3. Melanoma: most dangerous
-involves melanocytes
-highly meats tic and resistant to chemotherapy
-treated by removal or immunotherapy

11

Burns
Name the 3 levels of burns and the layers of skin that are affected

1st degree: epidermal damage only
-redness, swelling and pain
2nd degree: epidermal and upper dermal damage
-blisters appear
3rd degree: entire thickness of skin damaged
-grey white, cherry red, or black
-no initial pain as nerve endings are destroyed
-skin grafting unusually necessary