Lecture 18 - White Blood cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 18 - White Blood cells Deck (39):
1

cellular contents of white blood cells

contain cell organelles, nucleus and DNA (unlike erythrocytes)

2

white blood cells reach all areas of the body by?

moving out of blood capillaries, into the tissues, forming the interstitial fluid, which then returns to the blood via the lymphatic system

3

leukocytes derive from...?

hemopoitic stem cells

4

what happens when a b-cell recognises an antigen?

the cells multiply and transform into plasma cells, which make the antibodies specific to that antigen

5

name all 5 leukocytes

Lymphocytes (B + T) (20%), Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils (70%), Monocytes (8%)

6

which WBC is pictured here?

Q image thumb

lymphocyte

7

birth and life of monocytes?

develop in red bone marrow and circulate in the blood for ~5-8 days.

8

agranular leukocytes are...

monocytes and lymphocytes

9

basophils largely associated with?

intensify allergic reaction (histamine) very similar function to mast cells

10

which cells are phagocytes?

neutrophils and macrophages (not a blood cell). Also B-cells

11

who discovered phagocytes?

Metchnikoff

12

How does the macrophage destroy bacteria?

phagocytosis - engulf and digest.

13

what is the general function of lymphocytes?

process and store information about possible infections

14

which blood cell is the precursor to osteoclasts?

monocytes

15

what do macrophages identify?

crude features of pathogens, or bound antibody

16

Mast cell function?

release histamine during inflammatory and allergic reactions

17

name the granular leukocytes

Basophil, Eosinophil, neutrophil. All have visible granules in their cytoplasm

18

3 processes antibodies carry out, enhancing phagocytosis

- neutralisation (blocks viral binding sites, coats bacteria) - agglunation (antigen-bearing particles) - precipitation (of soluble antigens)

19

flow of lymph?

much slower than blood flow, series of valves prevent lymph flowing backwards

20

what are MHC class 2 molecules?

surface molecules on macrophages and B-cells, to which internalised proteins (antigens) from the digestion of bacteria bind.

21

what is the point of class 2 MHC-antigen complex

when the macrophages travel to the lymph nodes it allows the T-cells to read what's inside.

22

Complement attack

Bacteria tagged with Ig destroyed by plasma MOLECULES (these molecules make up the complement system). The cell is lysed (bursts)

23

how do neutrophils identify their targets?

with generic receptors, made using information obtained through genetic inheritance. Only able to identify common bacteria features and can not adapt/ change if a new bacteria evolves

24

lymph node before and after infection of TB (for example)

- before: small B-cell clone (in lymph node) making antibodies for TB - after: B-cell clone expanded and producing more antibodies

25

litres of lymph in circulation

3L

26

which WBC is pictured here?

Q image thumb

basophil

27

immune system repertoire =

all the different binding specificities of millions of different antibodies and similar membrane bound molecules

28

which WBC is pictured here?

Q image thumb

eosinophil

29

2 types of t-lymphocytes and their function

1. t-helper: assist and control b-cell expansion. Can instruct other cells to take action 2. t-cytotoxic: kill cells infected with virus (aka t-killer)

30

if an inbred mouse gets fried by radiation, what is the ONLY cell than can repair its immune response?

Lymphocytes

31

lymphatic system's role in bootleg analogy

surveillance system

32

which WBC is pictured here?

Q image thumb

neutrophil

33

which WBC is pictured here?

Q image thumb

monocyte

34

lymphocytes identify?

anything non-cellular (anything that isn't "you") using antigen-receptor molecules on their membrane

35

how do macrophages come to be?

monocytes move out of capillaries into the infected tissue. Monocytes then develop into macrophages.

36

what do t-cells express?

antigen-specific t-cell receptor molecules

37

how do neutrophils do their thang?

neutrophils enter infection site and destroy bacteria, then die

38

what are b-cells genetically programmed to do?

encode a surface receptor for a particular antigen

39

another name for white blood cells

leukocytes