lecture 21 - structure and function of the cell membrane Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in lecture 21 - structure and function of the cell membrane Deck (46):
1

thickness of membrane

8nm

2

lipid bilayer structure described as? constitutes?

fluid mosaic. 50% lipids, 50% proteins ("floating in lipid sea")

3

what holds proteins and lipids together?

hydrogen bonds

4

3 types of lipids in the bilayer

cholesterol and glycolipids scattered amongst double layer phospholipids (75%)

5

amphipathic

phospholipids have both a polar and a non-polar region

6

tails of phospholipids form?

hydrophobic core

7

lipids can move around in their respective __________ _________

_membrane_ _leaflet_

8

do lipids flip flop between leaflets or nah?

very rarely (basically no) this allows leaflets to be assymetric in what they constitute.

9

longer lipid tail length =

less fluid membrane

10

more double bonds =

more fluid membrane (more space between lipids)

11

more cholesterol =

less fluid membrane

12

integral proteins

extend INTO or completely ACROSS the membrane (transmembrane protein)

13

peripheral proteins

associated with but NOT EMBEDDED into the membrane. Only on the surface. may be bonded to integral proteins. e.g. cytoskeleton proteins

14

how do integral membranes stay anchored in membrane?

hydrophobic regions span the hydrophobic core (non-polar amino acids coiled into alpha helices). the hydrophilic regions interact with the aqueous solution.

15

how is the maintenance of concentration gradients allowed?

by the cell membrane controlling what comes in and what doesn't

16

functions of membrane proteins?

- receptors
- cell identity markers
- linkers
- enzymes
- channels
- transporters

17

organisation of of molecules in the membrane determines?

selective permeability

18

3 things lipid bilayer permeable to (alone)...

- non-polar, uncharged molecules (e.g. oxygen, nitrogen, benzene)
- lipid soluble molecules (e.g. steroids, vitamins)
- small, uncharged polar molecules (e.g. water, urea)

19

2 things lipid bilayer impermeable too... (due to hydrophobic core

- large uncharged polar molecules (e.g. glucose)
- Ions Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, H+

20

diffusion

high to low areas of concentration. down concentration gradient. due to particles KE

21

ways to decrease rate of diffusion

lower temperature, larger molecule, smaller concentration difference, less surface area, larger distance

22

rate of diffusion limits cell size to...

20μm

23

how is O2 gradient maintained?

used up as quickly as it is provided

24

movement of ions influenced by...

electrochemical gradient = both concentration gradient and electrical gradient together

25

difference in concentrations across membrane enabled by?

selective permeability

26

membrane potential =

differences in charged ions across membrane forming electrical gradient. acts as a 'capacitor'

27

how much energy is required to maintain electrical and chemical gradients?

~30% of resting potential

28

what do these electrical and chemical gradients represent?

stored energy

29

osmosis =

net diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, from a region of high water conc. to lower water conc.

30

can osmosis still occur if membrane is more permeable to other CERTAIN solutes?

NO e.g. more permeable to Na+/K+ in neurons than water.. no osmosis

31

osmotic pressure =

opposing, hydrostatic force, preventing osmosis from equilibrating the osmotic gradient

32

permeability to water (Pw) =

permeability through lipid bilayer (Pd) + permeability through water channel (Pf)

33

what causes cells to have different permeability to water?

different aquaporin isoforms

34

permeability through lipid bilayer (Pd) is...

- small
- mercury insensitive
- temp. dependent (fluidity)

35

permeability through water channel (Pf)

- large
- sensitive to Mercury
- temp. dependent
- mediated by aquaporins

36

how many isoforms of aquaporins?

9

37

osmolarity of blood =

280 mOsmol (isosmotic with interstitial fluid)

38

same osmolarity =

isosmotic

39

solution has higher osmolarity =

hyperosmotic

40

solution has lower osmolarity =

hyposmotic

41

Tonicity is?

effect a solution has on cell volume. Dependent on permeability of membrane to solute

42

are osmolarity and tonicity the same thing?

NO! (remember blood lab g)

43

isotonic =

no change in cell volume

44

hypotonic solution =

higher concentration inside cell. cell swells and lyses (bursts)

45

hypertonic solution =

higher concentraion outside cell. cell shrinks = CRENATION

46

osmotic pressure can be opposed by?

hydrostatic pressure