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Flashcards in lecture 32 - Cardiac muscle Deck (43):
1

How does the cross-bridge cycle differ between smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle?

it doesn't. It is exactly the same for all of them.

2

length and diameter of cardiac muscle cells

ventricular: 100μm x 30μm atrial: 100μm x 10μm

3

define myogenic and sate its relevance to cardiac muscle cells

myogenic means that control over muscle cells is involuntary. This is the case with cardiac muscle cells.

4

T-tubules in cardiac muscle (vs. skeletal)

in cardiac muscle they are in the ventricles at the Z-lines, thus, there is only 1 T-tubule per sarcomere (as opposed to 2 in skeletal). N.B. atrial muscle cells have no T-tubules.

5

is there a sarcoplasmic reticulum in the cardiac muscle or nah?

sarcoplasmic reticulum is present, however, it is not as extensive or as important as in the skeletal muscle.

6

intercalated discs (contain? functions?)

- desmosomes prevent cells from separating during contraction - gap junctions allow APs to carry between cells - allows for the coordinated contraction of all myocytes

7

action potential in the ventricular myocytes

- long lasting (greater than 100ms vs. 1ms in skeletal) - plateau (due to Ca2+) - very little chance of tetani

8

sinoatrial node

found at the top of the right atrial wall. Initiates the AP.

9

purkinje fibres

carry AP, from the atroventricular node, around the ventricles .

10

rapid depolarisation (ventricular myocytes) due to...

fast voltage-gated Na+ channels, cause the membrane potential to reverse from -90mV to +30mV

11

Plateau phase (ventricular myocytes) due to...

long acting, voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels open and there is a large sustained Ca2+ current, as the calcium moves in from the extracellular fluid

12

repolarisation (ventricular myocyte) due to...

closing of Ca+ channel and opening of K+ channels (basic AP tekkers)

13

how does the interaction between the SR and the T-tubules differ in cardiac vs. skeletal?

in cardiac muscle there is a separation between the SR and the T-tubules

14

how is the influx of Ca2+ into the myocytes balanced?

Na+/Ca2+ exchanger

15

DHPR =

Dihydrogen pyridine - same exact thing as L-type Ca2+ channel

16

influx of Ca2+ into the sarcolemma/T-tubules, triggers?

CALCIUM INDUCED CALCIUM RELEASE Ca2+ sensitive channels in the SR (RyRa) open, liberating BURSTS (not constant) of Ca2+. Muscle contraction can then occur as it does in the skeletal muscle.

17

as the action potential starts to repolarise, what happens to the Ca2+ ions?

Pumped into the SR through CaATPase (SERCA) and extruded from the cell via Na/Ca exchanger

18

how is the contraction size graded?

by changing the concentration of Ca2+ i.e the presence of actin binding-sites

19

can the heart increase the force in a contraction by recruiting more fibres?

NO!!! "all or nothing" when the heart beats, every muscle fibre is involved

20

Cardiac output (CO) =

Stroke volume (SV) x Heart rate (HR)

21

Stroke volume reflects...

tension developed by the cardiac muscle fibres in one contraction

22

3 ways to increase stroke volume

1. increased stretch of ventricles (length) 2. increased rate of firing (HR) 3. certain hormones

23

the pacemaker cells are...

Sinoatrial node and atrioventrical node

24

pacemaker RMP

unstable resting membrane potential, spontaneously reaches threshold

25

pacemaker potential

threshold is reached (spontaneously) when there is a slow depolarisation, due to 'funny' channels letting Na+ leak into the cells

26

pacemaker depolarisation

when the threshold is reached, the Ca2+  T-type (transient) channels open and the rapid influx of Ca2+ produces the rising plane of the action potential

27

pacemaker repolarisation

inactivation of Ca2+ channels and opening of K+ channels. Takes a while due to the L-type Ca2+ channels

28

3 ways to increase HR (by altering the SA depolarisation)

1. decreasing the threshold potential 2. make the maximum distolic potential more positive 3. increasing the rate of spontaneous depolarisation

29

parasympathetic vagus nerve

- decreases heart rate - releases ACh - mostly affects the HR

30

sympathetic cardiac nerve

- increases heart rate - releases noradrenaline - affects both HR and SV

31

Noraepinephrin vs. noradrenaline

same thing mayyyyyyynnne

32

bmp without any neurotransmitters intervening

~100bpm

33

noradrenaline

- increases the rate of spontaneous depolarisation, which increases the heart rate

- increases the SR uptake of Ca2+ (more can be released) 

34

ACh

decreases rate of spontaneous depolarisation and decreases membrane potential

35

Starling's Law of The Heart

"As the resting ventricular volume is increased, the force of contraction is increased"

36

Na+/Ca2+ exchanger

voltage sensitive - stimulated by the repolarisation phase of the action potential.

37

sarcomere length in resting cardiac muscle is ____ and develop maximum force when stretched to ____

sarcomere length in resting cardiac muscle is _1.8μm_ and develop maximum force when stretched to _2.1μm_

38

Which numbers indicate:

a) where L-type Ca2+ channels open then close

b) where Na+ channels open and close

c) where K+ is pumped out

Q image thumb

a) open at 1, close at 3

b) open at 0, close at 1

c) starts pumping out at 2, until a new AP initiates

39

which region of the curve is due to the I(funny current)

Q image thumb

1

40

what is represented by each curve mayne?

Q image thumb

1 = active tension in skeletal muscle

2 = active tension in cardiac muscle

3 = passive tension in cardiac muscle

4 = passive tension in skeletal muscle

41

Cardiac muscle is electrically __________ whereas skeletal muscle is electrically _________

Cardiac muscle is electrically _coupled_ whereas skeletal muscle is electrically _isolated_

42

increasing heart rate...

increases contractive force because there is less time for Ca2+ to be pumped out of the cell. Termed "automacity"

43

increased inotropy (presence of Noradrenaline) will...

increase active tension at any given length