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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (21):

Names of Studies or Fields associated with Microbiology

1. Bacteriology
2. Virology (viruses)
3. Mycology (study of Fungi)
4. Parasitology (medical parasites)
5. Phycology (Algology) (algae)


Waterborne diseases
Caused by bacteria

a. Typhoid fever – caused by Salmonella typhi (gram-, rod)
b. Cholera- caused by Vibrio cholerae (gram-, spiral)
c. Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) caused by Shigella sonnei and S. dysenteriae (gram-, rod)
all cause diarrhea


Waterborne diseases
Caused by viruses

a. Infectious Hepatitis – caused by Hepatitis A virus
b. Polio – caused by the Polio virus


Waterborne diseases
Caused by protozoa

a. Giardiasis – caused by Giardia lamblia
(cells are alive)


Soil organisms

the top foot-acre of soil contains approximately 1000 lbs. of bacteria and an
equal amount of fungi, protozoa and algae.
has protective spores



is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani. This is an anaerobic, sporeforming
Gram positive rod that produces a powerful neurotoxin
causes muscle spasms and lock jaw


Dairy product organisms
where can it grow? where is it found? gram and shape

Listeriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes.
This organism is capable of growing at refrigerator temperatures and can be found in
unpasteurized dairy products. (Also found occasionally in pre-packaged meat products). This
bacterial organism is a Gram positive rod that can infect the CNS and cause meningitis.
Pasteurization can destroy this organism and prevent infection. (60 degrees C. for 30 minutes)


Blood products (serum/plasma)/body fluids

Serum Hepatitis is caused by the Hepatitis B virus.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by the virus known as HIV


Respiratory aerosols

Influenza is caused by the Influenza virus. The common cold can be caused by several viruses (Coronavirus, Rhinovirus, Adenovirus). Pneumonic plague is caused by
a bacterial organism known as Yersinia pestis.


Foods and Beverages

Saccharomyces cerevisiae-yeast
Lactobacillus sanfrancisco-bacterium
Penicillium roquefortii and Penicillium camembertii-molds


Saccharomyces cerevisiae

used as baker’s yeast and to produce alcohol in


Lactobacillus sanfrancisco

bacterium used in sour french bread cultures


Penicillium roquefortii and Penicillium camembertii

molds used to produce distinctive flavors and textures in cheese.


Single Cell Protein
growth, efficient in what?

Spirulina spp. (algae) and Torula spp. (yeast) can be grown in industrial amounts to supply quantities of protein. Single cell protein could be a more efficient method of food production than beef, pork or soybeans, but it is not an ideal situation due to practical problems. Securing clean water along with geopolitical issues can interfere with this method of food distribution.


4 types

Penicillium spp. (terrestrial mold), Cephalosporium spp. (marine mold), Streptomyces spp. (bacterium) and Bacillus spp. (bacterium) are the four parent Genera used in producing antibiotics.


Recombinant DNA technology

Escherichia coli-bacterium
Pseudomonas syringae-bacterium


Escherichia coli-bacterium

used as a major organism in developing techniques to move and recombine DNA resulting in genetically engineered cells. Genetically engineered cells have been used to produce t-PA (tissue plasminogen activator), insulin, HGH (human growth hormone), interferon, Factor VIII, fetal hemoglobin etc.


Pseudomonas syringae-bacterium

used as a nucleating positive (+) strain to promote
water crystallization in the production of snow. A genetically engineered Pseudomonas syringae nucleating negative (-) strain will inhibit ice crystallization and can be used on agricultural crops to prevent frost damage



combination of two cells
Techniques partially developed from microbial recombinant DNA technology has
allowed for the creation of hybridomas. Hybridomas are combined cells that haveattributes from the individual cells. A hybridoma has been developed from a B cell
lymphocyte and a cancer cell. We now have a cell that produces monoclonal antibodies
(B cell attribute) and divides rapidly (cancer cell attribute)


Gnotobiotic (known life) Research

Involves the use of experimentally infected germ free animals. A test animal that is
germ free can be reinfected with a single microorganism to see the effects of this one


Entomopathogenic Bacterium

causes disease in insects
Bacillus thuringiensis-bacterium, can be used to destroy insects that damage crops.
This organism produces a toxin which kills the larval form of the cotton boll weevil.