Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (21):
Names of Studies or Fields associated with Microbiology
2. Virology (viruses)
3. Mycology (study of Fungi)
4. Parasitology (medical parasites)
5. Phycology (Algology) (algae)
Caused by bacteria
a. Typhoid fever – caused by Salmonella typhi (gram-, rod)
b. Cholera- caused by Vibrio cholerae (gram-, spiral)
c. Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) caused by Shigella sonnei and S. dysenteriae (gram-, rod)
all cause diarrhea
Caused by viruses
a. Infectious Hepatitis – caused by Hepatitis A virus
b. Polio – caused by the Polio virus
Caused by protozoa
a. Giardiasis – caused by Giardia lamblia
(cells are alive)
the top foot-acre of soil contains approximately 1000 lbs. of bacteria and an
equal amount of fungi, protozoa and algae.
has protective spores
is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani. This is an anaerobic, sporeforming
Gram positive rod that produces a powerful neurotoxin
causes muscle spasms and lock jaw
Dairy product organisms
where can it grow? where is it found? gram and shape
Listeriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes.
This organism is capable of growing at refrigerator temperatures and can be found in
unpasteurized dairy products. (Also found occasionally in pre-packaged meat products). This
bacterial organism is a Gram positive rod that can infect the CNS and cause meningitis.
Pasteurization can destroy this organism and prevent infection. (60 degrees C. for 30 minutes)
Blood products (serum/plasma)/body fluids
Serum Hepatitis is caused by the Hepatitis B virus.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by the virus known as HIV
Influenza is caused by the Influenza virus. The common cold can be caused by several viruses (Coronavirus, Rhinovirus, Adenovirus). Pneumonic plague is caused by
a bacterial organism known as Yersinia pestis.
Foods and Beverages
Penicillium roquefortii and Penicillium camembertii-molds
used as baker’s yeast and to produce alcohol in
bacterium used in sour french bread cultures
Penicillium roquefortii and Penicillium camembertii
molds used to produce distinctive flavors and textures in cheese.
Single Cell Protein
growth, efficient in what?
Spirulina spp. (algae) and Torula spp. (yeast) can be grown in industrial amounts to supply quantities of protein. Single cell protein could be a more efficient method of food production than beef, pork or soybeans, but it is not an ideal situation due to practical problems. Securing clean water along with geopolitical issues can interfere with this method of food distribution.
Penicillium spp. (terrestrial mold), Cephalosporium spp. (marine mold), Streptomyces spp. (bacterium) and Bacillus spp. (bacterium) are the four parent Genera used in producing antibiotics.
Recombinant DNA technology
used as a major organism in developing techniques to move and recombine DNA resulting in genetically engineered cells. Genetically engineered cells have been used to produce t-PA (tissue plasminogen activator), insulin, HGH (human growth hormone), interferon, Factor VIII, fetal hemoglobin etc.
used as a nucleating positive (+) strain to promote
water crystallization in the production of snow. A genetically engineered Pseudomonas syringae nucleating negative (-) strain will inhibit ice crystallization and can be used on agricultural crops to prevent frost damage
combination of two cells
Techniques partially developed from microbial recombinant DNA technology has
allowed for the creation of hybridomas. Hybridomas are combined cells that haveattributes from the individual cells. A hybridoma has been developed from a B cell
lymphocyte and a cancer cell. We now have a cell that produces monoclonal antibodies
(B cell attribute) and divides rapidly (cancer cell attribute)
Gnotobiotic (known life) Research
Involves the use of experimentally infected germ free animals. A test animal that is
germ free can be reinfected with a single microorganism to see the effects of this one