Flashcards in Lecture 2: Descriptive Epi & Frequency Deck (74)
Frequency refers to....
Counts of disease occurrence within a specific population
Patterns of disease refers to....
What are the three types of surveillance systems?
Healthcare worker reports to the CDC when a new case of ebola surfaces
Example of passive surveillance
An EIS worker is sent to Kansas City to investigate the outbreak of swine flu
Example of active surveillane
Define syndromic surveillance
A system that tracks specific signs/symptoms
Typically associated with rare diseases/conditions
What does the biosurveillance system focus on?
Humans, animals and plants alike
Name the four stages of the disease timeline
Recovery or Death
What causes you to move from the susceptibility stage to subclinical?
Exposure to disease
What does it mean to be subclinical?
You have been exposed to the disease, under going pathological changes but are pre-symptomatic
Meaning you have not shown any symptoms yet
What causes you to move from subclinical to clinical stage?
The onset of symptoms
In what stage and region of that stage does time of diagnosis fall?
Within the early clinical stage
What occurs in the final stage of the disease timeline?
Define induction period
Time between exposure and onset of disease
Also called incubation period
The time between exposure to a disease and onset of symptoms
Time between onset of disease and diagnosis
Define latency period
Time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis
What do you think is the most critical element that must be defined before any of the ‘who’ of descriptive epidemiology can be acquired?
What are we looking?
What is the criteria someone must meet to be considered diseased?
What do these questions represent?
Define ‘case definition’
A set of criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance
Enabling us to define a disease across nations and globally
What does CSTE stand for
Council of state & territorial epidemiologists
What does CSTE recommend?
That state health departments report occurances of specific diseases to the CDC’s NNDSS
What does NNDSS stand for?
National notifiable disease surveillance system
NNDSS is a department of what organization?
What does the NNDSS do?
Collects the reports from health departments on occurrences of a specific list of diseases
How often are case definitions updated?
Explain why it is important to have case definitions
We must always clearly define our diseases so that we can communicate across departments and across nations. So we know we are talking about the same thing
What is the difference between a confirmed and probable case?
Lab tests have confirmed diagnosis
Lab tests are not yet in but the patient has all the symptoms of a certain condition
Occurrence of a disease that is clearly higher than normal within a specific population