Lecture 2: Descriptive Epi & Frequency Flashcards Preview

Epidemiology Exam 1 > Lecture 2: Descriptive Epi & Frequency > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 2: Descriptive Epi & Frequency Deck (74)
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1

Frequency refers to....

Counts of disease occurrence within a specific population

2

Patterns of disease refers to....

Person
Place
Time

Descriptive epi-3W’s

3

What are the three types of surveillance systems?

Passive
Active
Syndromic

4

Healthcare worker reports to the CDC when a new case of ebola surfaces

Example of passive surveillance

5

An EIS worker is sent to Kansas City to investigate the outbreak of swine flu

Example of active surveillane

6

Define syndromic surveillance

A system that tracks specific signs/symptoms
Typically associated with rare diseases/conditions

7

What does the biosurveillance system focus on?

Humans, animals and plants alike

8

Name the four stages of the disease timeline

Susceptibility
Subclinical
Clinical
Recovery or Death

9

What causes you to move from the susceptibility stage to subclinical?

Exposure to disease

10

What does it mean to be subclinical?

You have been exposed to the disease, under going pathological changes but are pre-symptomatic

Meaning you have not shown any symptoms yet

11

What causes you to move from subclinical to clinical stage?

The onset of symptoms

12

In what stage and region of that stage does time of diagnosis fall?

Within the early clinical stage

13

What occurs in the final stage of the disease timeline?

Recovery
Disability
Death

14

Define induction period

Time between exposure and onset of disease

Also called incubation period

15

The time between exposure to a disease and onset of symptoms

Incubation period
Or
Induction period

16

Time between onset of disease and diagnosis

Latency period

17

Define latency period

Time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis

18

What do you think is the most critical element that must be defined before any of the ‘who’ of descriptive epidemiology can be acquired?

Case definitions

19

What are we looking?
What is the criteria someone must meet to be considered diseased?

What do these questions represent?

Case definitions

20

Define ‘case definition’

A set of criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance

Enabling us to define a disease across nations and globally

21

What does CSTE stand for

Council of state & territorial epidemiologists

22

What does CSTE recommend?

That state health departments report occurances of specific diseases to the CDC’s NNDSS

23

What does NNDSS stand for?

National notifiable disease surveillance system

24

NNDSS is a department of what organization?

CDC

25

What does the NNDSS do?

Collects the reports from health departments on occurrences of a specific list of diseases

26

How often are case definitions updated?

Annually

27

Explain why it is important to have case definitions

We must always clearly define our diseases so that we can communicate across departments and across nations. So we know we are talking about the same thing

28

What is the difference between a confirmed and probable case?

Lab tests have confirmed diagnosis

Lab tests are not yet in but the patient has all the symptoms of a certain condition

29

Occurrence of a disease that is clearly higher than normal within a specific population

Epidemic

30

An epidemic limited to a specific region

Outbreak