Flashcards in Lecture 2 - Development Deck (36)
Two types of globalisation processes what is hypermobility and and time space compression?
Hypermobility is of people, goods but also money
Time space compression is real and perceptible distances
Global shrinkage is what?
the effect of changing transport technologies on ‘real’ distance (McHale, 1969)
Globalisation implies what?
Change and uneveness
Why does unevenness occour?
Processes – (post-Fordism)
Regimes of Accumulation – (capitalism creates but also copes with crisis)
What is Fordism?
economic production based around factories (18th-20th Century)
What is post fordism?
Economy of scope
Specialisation of job and product
Different focus on type of consumer
Increased number of women in the workplace
What are limits of globalisation?
the importance of the local
local-global oppositions (McGrew, 1992)
homogenisation vs. differentiation
centralisation vs. decentralisation
How do we measure development?
Wealth, economic structure, diet, health, demographics, UN Human Development Index
Human development index was cordianted by UN what does it measure?
Standard of Living
What is the Fisher-Clark Theory?
A theory of structural change
Fisher-Clark proposed economies have how many stages of production?
What is stage 1 of the Fisher Clark theory?
Primary production – extraction of raw materials through e.g. agric, fishing, forestry
What is stage 2 of the Fisher-Clark theory?
Secondary production – industrial production through manufacturing and construction
What is stage 3 of the Fisher-Clark theory?
Tertiary production – provision of services (economic maturity)
Assumes that demand for services grows with income
There are 5 critiques of the Fisher-Clark model, what are they?
-Not overtly spatial
-Universalism of model there are no internal variations
-Western fit of model
-Assumes progressive development – in practice, some economies have leaped to service economy through e.g. tourism (The Gambia, Kenya, South Africa)
-Contemporary variations of service economies – emergence of ‘quaternary service sector’
The modernisation theory developed by who?
Walt Rostow (1960)
How many stages did the modernisation theory discover and what were they about?
5 stages of economic growth…and identifies factors creating development/maturity
5 stages of the modernisation theory. Number 1 is the traditional stage what is this?
The agriculture and hunter-gatherer stage - social structures dominated by family, clan or tribal groupings; pre nation state
Number 2 of modernisation theory is Preconditions for take off, what is this?
Savings/investment rates above population growth rates, increased importance of the nation state, elite status not based on family or clan, changes are often triggered by external extrusion
Number 3 of the modernisation theory is take off, what is this?
triggered by internal/external stimulus e.g political revolution. Higher rates of investment and saving, substantial manufacturing sector, banks and other intrusions in places
Number 4 of the modernisation theory is drive to maturity, what is this?
Expansion of use and range in technology, growth of new economic sectors, investments/savings 10-20% of national income
Number 5 of modernisation theory is age of high mass consumption, what is this?
Widespread consumption of durable consumer goods and services, increased spending on welfare services
Dependency Theory was developed by who?
Andre Gunder Frank (1967)
What are the bases of the dependency theory?
Nature of under-development
Established spatial power-relations
Development and under-development
The dependency used Latin America as what?
As a model metropolis and satellites highlighting unequal power relationships
There are 3 basic assumptions of the dependency theory, what are they?
(1) Poor nations provide raw materials for the rich states
(2) Rich states facilitate a system of dependency
(3) All attempts to get out of dependency are resisted by the rich states
In context to the dependency theory, how does technology work?
The dominant countries have technological and industrial advantage, therefore they ensure economic system works in own self-interest
In context tot he dependency the world is not what?
On a level playing field, the only way to move LEDCs from poverty cycles would be reform
The dependency suggests 4 practical recommendations what are they?
Promotion of domestic industry
Forbid foreign investment
There are 4 critiques of the dependency theory, what are they?
1. It assumes static spatial relationships, whereas power relations are fluid
2. It is politically unrealistic
3. Corruption can happen
4. There is a lack of competition = inefficiency
There are 7 critiques to Walt Rostows, modernisation theory, name 4 of the 7?
1. Universalism of model
2. Western fit of model
3. Assumes linear progression
4. ‘Myth’ of developmentalism
There are 7 critiques to Walt Rostows, modernisation theory, name the final 3 of the 7?
5. Inter-dependence of development
6. Overlooks importance of power
7. Fails to identify pre-conditions, hard to predict
Conc: Patterns of globalisation are what?
Conc: Inequality could be what?
Conc: Inequalities could be a