Flashcards in Lecture 2: Intelligence and Creativity Deck (30):
What are the five points that can define intelligence?
1/ Academic performance
2/ Capacity to reason in diverse contexts
3/ Capacity to solve problems
4/ Ability to understand and communicate
5/ Ability to make decisions
What do psychologists mean by intelligence? (3 points)
1/ Abstract thinking or reasoning abilities (information-processing skills)
2/ Problem-solving abilities (being able to adapt to changing environments)
3/ The capacity to acquire knowledge (Capacity to learn)
What are the two main theoretical debates when understanding intelligence?
1/ Is intelligence a single measurable trait?
2/ Does IQ = intelligence?
Why do we want to differentiate between levels of intelligence? (2 points)
1/ Measurement of intelligence associated with eugenic movements
2/ Scientific fraud - Cyril Burt
What are the two main approaches to intelligence in psychology?
1/ Psychometric Approach
2/ Information processing approach
What are the two main theories of intelligence?
1/ Triarchic theory (Sternberg 1988-1999)
2/ Multiple intelligences (gardner 1993, 2003)
What are the two main reasons for measuring intelligence?
For education and clinical applications
Evaluate the value of IQ tests in terms of statistical reliability...
- Not good before age 7
- Exceptionally consistent for teens and adults
Evaluate the value of IQ tests in terms of statistical validity...
-Predicts success in school
- Predicts success in many life situations and jobs
Why are IQ tests not a perfect measure of 'smartness' (5)
1/ Only measures some abilities
2/ Variability of individuals’ emotional responses
3/ Individuals’ motivational differences
4/ Cultural differences
5/ Differing educational and social experiences
Mention the innate and environmental influences on IQ...
Intelligence is a developed ability...
It is influenced partly by genetics and partly by education, culture and other life experiences.
Evidence of twin studies explaining the innate and environmental influences on IQ...?
- Correlations of IQs of identical twins, separated at birth and adopted by different families are at least +.60
- However, IQ correlations between any two people sharing the same home is high
Why is there a relationship between IQ and socioeconomic status (4)?
1/ Parents' intelligence influences their jobs and status
2/ Income affects children's environments (environment affects expression of genes)
3/ Motivational differences
4/ Greater opportunities for people with higher IQs
What is the relationship between ethnic differences and IQ?
Variation within ethnic groups is much greater than variation between groups
What is the relationship between cultural differences and IQ?
IQ tests – reflect cultural values (movie – australian aborigines)
Name three diversities in cognitive abilities.
3/ Intellectual disability
What is creative thinking?
Ability to produce new, high quality ideas that are both abstract and concrete.
Give example of an abstract idea in terms of creative thinking?
Abstract – turing – father of computer science – came up model of a general computer
Give example of a concrete idea in terms of creative thinking?
Concrete – Edison came up with light bulb
effort persistence divergent thinking, risk-taking, lateral thinking – divergent thinking – a bit like brain storming – explore many possible solutions to a problem, lateral thinking – using reasoning that is not immediately obvious, slang – thinking outside the box.
What are the 3 necessary characteritsics for a creative thinker?
2/ A set of creative skills
3/ Internal motivation
What is giftedness?
A characteristics that is associated with above average IQ's.
However IQ does not always equal and inventor, artist or composer etc.
What are the 3 main characteristics of giftedness?
1/ usually have above average IQ
2/ High achievement in a specific domain
3/ Intense motivation to master a certain task
What is intellectual disability?
Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills.
What are the 3 main characteristics for people with intellectual disability?
1/ Perform certain mental operations more slowly
2/ Know fewer facts
3/ Not good at remembering to use certain mental strategies even if they know how
What are the three categorisations of possible caused for intellectual disability?
Cultural-familial intellectual disability
What are 2 examples of genetic causes of intellectual disability?
1/ Down syndrome
2/ Fragile X syndrome
What are 3 examples of environmental causes of intellectual disability?
2/ Fetal alcohol syndrome
3/ Infectious diseases
What is Cultural-familial intellectual disability?
perform mental operations more slowly, know less about world, fail to use mental strategies to improve memory
What is fragile X?
verbal ability OK - sometimes, intellectual disability, hyperactive autistic spectrum problems – ie genetic cause for autism account for 5% of cases