Lecture 2: Intelligence and Creativity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2: Intelligence and Creativity Deck (30):

What are the five points that can define intelligence?

1/ Academic performance
2/ Capacity to reason in diverse contexts
3/ Capacity to solve problems
4/ Ability to understand and communicate
5/ Ability to make decisions


What do psychologists mean by intelligence? (3 points)

1/ Abstract thinking or reasoning abilities (information-processing skills)
2/ Problem-solving abilities (being able to adapt to changing environments)
3/ The capacity to acquire knowledge (Capacity to learn)


What are the two main theoretical debates when understanding intelligence?

1/ Is intelligence a single measurable trait?
2/ Does IQ = intelligence?


Why do we want to differentiate between levels of intelligence? (2 points)

1/ Measurement of intelligence associated with eugenic movements
2/ Scientific fraud - Cyril Burt


What are the two main approaches to intelligence in psychology?

1/ Psychometric Approach
2/ Information processing approach


What are the two main theories of intelligence?

1/ Triarchic theory (Sternberg 1988-1999)
2/ Multiple intelligences (gardner 1993, 2003)


What are the two main reasons for measuring intelligence?

For education and clinical applications


Evaluate the value of IQ tests in terms of statistical reliability...

- Not good before age 7
- Exceptionally consistent for teens and adults


Evaluate the value of IQ tests in terms of statistical validity...

-Predicts success in school
- Predicts success in many life situations and jobs


Why are IQ tests not a perfect measure of 'smartness' (5)

1/ Only measures some abilities
2/ Variability of individuals’ emotional responses
3/ Individuals’ motivational differences
4/ Cultural differences
5/ Differing educational and social experiences


Mention the innate and environmental influences on IQ...

Intelligence is a developed ability...
It is influenced partly by genetics and partly by education, culture and other life experiences.


Evidence of twin studies explaining the innate and environmental influences on IQ...?

- Correlations of IQs of identical twins, separated at birth and adopted by different families are at least +.60
- However, IQ correlations between any two people sharing the same home is high


Why is there a relationship between IQ and socioeconomic status (4)?

1/ Parents' intelligence influences their jobs and status
2/ Income affects children's environments (environment affects expression of genes)
3/ Motivational differences
4/ Greater opportunities for people with higher IQs


What is the relationship between ethnic differences and IQ?

Variation within ethnic groups is much greater than variation between groups


What is the relationship between cultural differences and IQ?

IQ tests – reflect cultural values (movie – australian aborigines)


Name three diversities in cognitive abilities.

1/ Creativity
2/ Giftedness
3/ Intellectual disability


What is creative thinking?

Ability to produce new, high quality ideas that are both abstract and concrete.


Give example of an abstract idea in terms of creative thinking?

Abstract – turing – father of computer science – came up model of a general computer


Give example of a concrete idea in terms of creative thinking?

Concrete – Edison came up with light bulb
effort persistence divergent thinking, risk-taking, lateral thinking – divergent thinking – a bit like brain storming – explore many possible solutions to a problem, lateral thinking – using reasoning that is not immediately obvious, slang – thinking outside the box.


What are the 3 necessary characteritsics for a creative thinker?

1/ Expertise
2/ A set of creative skills
3/ Internal motivation


What is giftedness?

A characteristics that is associated with above average IQ's.
However IQ does not always equal and inventor, artist or composer etc.


What are the 3 main characteristics of giftedness?

1/ usually have above average IQ
2/ High achievement in a specific domain
3/ Intense motivation to master a certain task


What is intellectual disability?

Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills.


What are the 3 main characteristics for people with intellectual disability?

1/ Perform certain mental operations more slowly
2/ Know fewer facts
3/ Not good at remembering to use certain mental strategies even if they know how


What are the three categorisations of possible caused for intellectual disability?

Genetic causes

Environmental causes

Cultural-familial intellectual disability


What are 2 examples of genetic causes of intellectual disability?

1/ Down syndrome
2/ Fragile X syndrome


What are 3 examples of environmental causes of intellectual disability?

1/ Rubella
2/ Fetal alcohol syndrome
3/ Infectious diseases


What is Cultural-familial intellectual disability?

perform mental operations more slowly, know less about world, fail to use mental strategies to improve memory


What is fragile X?

verbal ability OK - sometimes, intellectual disability, hyperactive autistic spectrum problems – ie genetic cause for autism account for 5% of cases


What are learning disabilities?

Indicated by significant discrepancies between measured intelligence and academic performance

Often seen in people with average or above-average IQs.