Flashcards in Lecture 3: Motivation Deck (22):
What is motivation?
Physiological and psychological factor that influence behaviour
What is motive and an example?
Motive is a single explanation for diverse behaviours... Eg: thirst explains all of the responses here
Why do we behave the way we do? (4 reasons)
1/ Physiological factors: need for food, water, warmth
2/ Emotional factors: love, fear, or revenge
3/ Cognitive factors: expectation of success or failure
4/ Social factors: influence of friends, parents, or teachers
What is the difference between motivations and emotions?
motivation involves goal directed action – emotions are reactive – there is also an element of internal vs external influences
What are our basic motivations?
The keep internal environment in balance
What is homeostasis?
Homeostasis or homoeostasis is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant. Examples of homeostasis include the regulation of temperature and the balance between acidity and alkalinity (pH).
What does homeostasis involve?
Set point – ideal state
Sensory signal measure actual state
Comparison between set point and actual state
How does temperature control physiological?
-Change in temperature detected by neurons in the hypothalamus
-Trigger physiological reaction –sensation of temperature, shivering or sweating
How does temperature have control on our behaviour?
Sensation cold – get a jumper
Sensation hot – open window
What is the drive reduction theory?
Need (biological disturbance eg, need liquid) --> Drive (psychological state that provides motivation to satisfy needs eg thirst drives making tea) --> Behaviour that satisfies need and reduces drive (eg drink tea) --> Equilibrium restored (rehydrated)
How do external stimuli motivate behaviour?
-Seek positive incentives
- Avoid negative incentives
How do incentives have value?
- Wanting (for reward)
- Liking (for pleasure)
How do we seperate the concept of wanting and liking?
Difficult to separate wanting and liking – we tend to want what we like and not want what we don’t like. Learn to associate objects and events with like vs dislike – incentive salience motivates behaviour.
What is incentive salience?
Incentive salience is the ‘wanting’ that is associated with a stimulus that predicts a reward. Most often used in relation to drug taking. So stimuli that are associated with the pleasure of taking drugs can provoke a wanting for the drug and this can be a powerful motivator for drug taking behaviour even when the addict no longer likes or enjoys taking the drug.
Explain the basic model of motives.
See a banana – memory of past reward (incentive)
Simultaneously, physiological signals modulate
What is the physiology of hunger?
Homeostasis (see diagram on slide 18)
What are the Socio-cultural factors in eating behaviour?
Flavour – people (and animals) eat more when multiple course are on offer
Appetite – motivation to seek pleasure
Specific hungers – learn to associate flavours with specific nutrients
Eating conditioned behaviour – eat in response to sights, sounds, places
Cultural traditions influence eating
What are the causes of unhealthy eating and obesity (5).
1/ Availability of high calorific food - less physical activity
2/ Genetic factors – sensitivity to leptin, number of fat cells
3/ Breakdown of conscious restraint
4/ Emotional arousal - stress and obesity
5/ Cultural attitudes to food (food industry)
Symptoms of anorexia nervosa?
- Fear of gaining weight
- Restrictive calorie intake, exercising, purging
- Severely underweight
- Unrealistic view of body shape
Causes of anorexia nervosa?
- Genetic predisposition
- Personality – perfectionism and control
- Obsession with thinness and attractiveness
Symptoms of bulimia?
- Fear of gaining weight
- Weight variable
- Binge eating and purging
- Bulimic recognize problem compared to anorexics