Flashcards in Lecture 2: Police selection and police stress Deck (39)
What is police recruitment?
police recruitment is getting a large group of people who are interested (excited and informed) in becoming police officers
What is police selection?
is about selecting the appropriate people from that large group of recruits to actually become officers. the process by which agencies select officers from a pool of applicants.
Screening out vs. Selecting in
Screening out people with undesirable qualities (impulsivity, violence, past offenders) or selecting in those with desirable qualities.
What do all agencies in Canada do in terms of police selection?
All agencies conduct background checks and require medical exams and most use cognitive ability tests and personality tests.
What is the multi hurdle approach that some agencies use?
Step 1: information session/qualities and requirements (drivers license, relatively clear criminal record)
Step 2: vision and hearing tests
Step 3: submit online application
Step 4: entrance exam (personality test and aptitude test)
Step 5: forms (applicant questionnaire)
Step 6: polygraph
Step 7: full health (medical/psychological)
Step 8: background and security clearance
What are the two stages that developing police selection instruments involves?
Job analysis and construction and validation
What is job analysis?
A procedure for identifying the knowledge, skills and abilities that make a good police officer. This can be done formally (using surveys/observational methods) or informally by asking.
What are some issues with conducting a job analysis?
the stability of KSA's changes over time
different KSA's for different jobs within policing
Agreement on KSA's
What is the construction and validation stage?
In this stage, an instrument must be developed for measuring the extent to which applicants possess relevant KSA's. An attempt must be made to determine the instruments validity or the extent to which the scores on the instrument relate to measures of actual on the job police performance.
What is predictive validity?
the extent to which score on a test (e.g., cognitive ability test) predict scores on some other measure (e.g., supervisors rating of police performance)
Issues with construction and validation
Deciding on performance measure (different performance measures provide different results)
Range restriction (screening of unqualified applicants provides restricted range of scores). key measures include: academy performance, supervisor ratings, number of complaints etc.)
What are the three selection instruments being used?
Selection interview, Psychological tests, Assessment centres
Describe selection interview
Very common in Canada, In recruiting police offciers an interview used by police to determine the extent to which an applicant possesses the KSA's deemed important for the job.
Problems with selection interviews
Low interviewer agreement
Faking good is common
Research on the predictive validity is mixed.
What are the two types of psychological tests used?
Cognitive ability tests and personality tests
Describe cognitive ability tests
Very common in Canada (RCMP police aptitude test)/. they are a procedure for measuring verbal, mathematical, memory and reasoning abilities.
problem with Cognitive ability tests:
they seem to better at prediciting performance during police academy training compared with future on the job performance.
Describe Personality tests
Common in Canada (e.g., the RCMP 6 factor personality questionnaire). The most common, the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) and the IPI developed specifically for police selection.
Problems with personality tests
Moderate predictive validity (IPI is slightly higher than MMPI)
What are assessment centres?
Assesement centres rely on situational tests, involving simulation of real world police tasks and applicant behaviour is assessed by multiple observers. problem: moderate predictive validity.
what is stress?
Stress is the automatic state that results when the body must make chnages in order to adapt a demand. Does not matter whether the stress is unpleasant or pleasant.
What are police stressors?
Police stressors refer to events that police officers encounter that they perceive as harmful, threatening or challenging. Historically, occupational stressors (e.g., shooting someone in the line of duty) were emphasized
Human suffering, officers are often exposed to the inequities and brutality of life. Killing someone, a fellow officer being killed, high speed chase
Criminal justice stressors
Involve unfavourable court decisions, many decisions are viewed by officers as unfair increasing stress.Legal technicalities, defence lawyers, lenient sentences
Intra organizational like: paperwork, inadequate support, promotion competition. Inter organizational: jurisdictional isolationism
Distorted press accounts, reports of incidents are often inaccurate and perceived as derogatory. Public harassment, press accounts, quiet neighbours
Which are the most stressfuL?
Different stressors will appear more stressful depending on how we phrase survey questions. More important than category: stress will emerge any time high demand is paired with low control
What are acute stressors?
Very serious, short lives. e.g., a shoot out
What are chronic stressors
Less serious, long lived. e.g., paperwork