Lecture 3: Police interrogations and detecting deception Flashcards Preview

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What is the purpose of a police interrogation in Canada?

To extract a confession (problem with this goal is that methods become inherently coercive) and to obtain information about the crime.


In the past physically coercive methods have been used, what are some examples?

whipping was occasionally used to obtain confessions (Brown v. Mississippi). In a more recent example, a wide range of torture tactics were used by chicago police to obtain confessions.
Stun guns and the NYCpolice and R. v. Hoilett.(clothes taken and left him in a cold cell, deprived him of sleep, interrogated while under the influence of alcohol)


Today, police use more subtle coercion, like?

Lying, exaggerating, threats, promises of leniency, moral justification, promises of assistance


The three steps of the reid model of interrogation

1. Gather evidence (about the crime to inform stage 2)
2. Conduct interview (this is a non accusatorial interview, don't know whether the suspect is guilty or not)
3. Conduct accusatorial interrogation (you have made the decision at this stage that the person you interviewed in stage 2 is lying to you about their innocence and you believe they are guilty


The nine step breakdown of step 3 in the Reid model

1. Confront suspect with their guilt
2. Develop psychological themes
3. Interrupt statements of denial
4. Overcome objections
5. Engage suspect
6. Show sympathy and urge truth
7. Offer alternative explanations (crux of interrogation)
8. Develop full confession
Obtain written confession


What is permissible by the courts in Canada?

Confession must be voluntary, and confessor must be compliant


What are some problems with the reid model?

Detecting deception , interrogator bias and false confessions


What is a minimization technique?

soft sell tactics used by police interrogators that are designed to lull the suspect into a false sense of secutiry


What is a maximization technique?

Scare tactics used by police interrogators that are designed to intimidate a suspect believed to be guilty.


What are retracted confessions?

A confession that the confessor later declares to be false


What are disputed confessions?

A confession that is later disputed at trial


What is a voluntary false confession?

A false confession tat is provided without any elicitation from the police. The charles lindbergh case


What is a coerced internalized confession?

It is the rarest, a confession that results from suggestive interrogation techniques, whereby the confessor actually comes to believe he or she committed the crime. The paul ingram case.


What are the 3 vulnerability factors associated with coerced internalized confessions?

1) a history of substance abuse or some other interference with brain function 2) the inability of people to detect discrepancies between what they observed and what has been erroneously suggested to them 3) factors associated with mental state


What is a coerced compliant confession?

A confession that results from a desire to escape a coercive interrogation environment or to gain a benefit promised by the police or to avoid a threatened punishment. The guilford four case.


What is internalization?

The acceptance of guilt for an act, even if the person did not actually commit it


What is confabulation?

the reporting of events that never actually occurred.


consequences of false confession

There is an increased chance of conviction even when jurors are aware that the confession was coerced. A second consequence is for the police and therefore the public, the police are diverted down a false trail that wastes time.


What is deception?

When a person intends to mislead another person deliberately without being explicitly asked to do so by the target


Depaulo &bell: married couples lied in 1 out of ___ interactions with their partner



Depaulo and Kashy: on average people lied to____ of the people whom they interacted with in a typical week



Stages of the detection process

Appropriate attention must be given to relevant cues (2 things are assumed here: you know which cues are relevant and paying attention)
Relevant cues must be interpreted as a sign of deceit
Errors can occur at each stage (e.g., othello error and Brokhaw hazard)


What are the methods for detecting deception?

The polygraph technique and verbal and non verbal behaviour


What is measured in the polygraph technique?

Autonomic nervous system responses like, Breathing, Heart rate, blood pressure, sweating (skin conductance response)


What is the comparison question test

A type of polygraph test that includes irrelevant questions that are unrelated to crime,, relevant questions concerning the crime being investigated and comparison questions concerning the person's honesty and past history prior to the event being investigated.


What is the guilty knowledge test/ concealed information test?

a type of polygraph test designed to determine if the person knows details about a crime. It does not assess deception but instead seeks to determine if the suspect knows details about the crime only a suspect would know. it is multiple choice format, and the suspect will display a larger physiological response to the correct answer than to the fake ones


What is the ground truth?

as applied to polygraph research, the knowledge of whether the person is actually guilty or innocent.


What are some counter measures?

Personality: psychopathy, however psychopaths are not more easily able to fool a polygraph than other people
Drugs and alcohol: Anti anxiety drugs/ tranquilizers
Physical maneuvers: Pressing toes into the floor, biting tongue
Mental countermeasures: counting backwards by 7 from a number greater than 200)


What are some verbal and non verbal behavior cues to lying?

Verbal: slower speech, higher pitch, speech errors, speech fillers, provide fewer details, avoid self correction, need to focus on patterns.
Non verbal: gaze aversion, fidgeting (less supportive evidence for these), blinking, body movements, shrugs etc.


Can people be trained?

Zukcerman et al.
Feedback increased accuracy (feedback based on whether you were right or wrong in detecting deception, if right you were reinforced to focus on the same characteristics)
But Results did not generalize